acres loch county west town miles north south east total
INVERNESS, a maritime county of Scotland, is situated as to its mainland portion between 56° 38' and 57° 36' N. lat. and 3° 27' and 5° 54' W. long., and is bounded on the N. by Ross, N.E. by Nairn and Elgin, E. by Banff and Aberdeen, S.E. by Perthshire, S. by Argyll, and W. by the Atlantic. It measures 85 miles from north-west to south-east and 55 miles from north-east to south-west. The total area is 2,723,840 acres or 4256 square miles. The mainland portion has an area of 1,947,520 imperial acres or 3043 square miles, of which, 86,400 acres or 135 square miles are under water. The area of the islands is 776,320 acres or 1213 square miles, of which the area under water is 39,040 acres or 61 square miles.
The surface of the county is very varied, consisting of ranges of lofty mountains alternating with deep narrow valleys, the beds of numerous lakes and rivers. Its exterior outline is very irregular. On the north-east a narrow tract runs out between Nairnshire and the Moray Firth. Further to the south-east a portion of it was detached till 1870, when by Act 33 cif, 34 Vict. c. 16 this and a similarly detached portion of Elgin were interchanged. Argyllshire penetrates it from the south-west, and Ross-shire from the north-west, while the western coast is indented by Lochs Moidart, Aylort, Nevis, Hourn, and other arms of the sea. Both the mainland and island portions abound in grand and picturesque scenery. The islands in the county are those of the Outer Hebrides (excluding Lewis, which belongs to Ross-shire, but including Harris), and Skye, Raasay, Rona, Sealpa, Eigg, d-u. (see HEBRIDES). The mainland portion is divided into two nearly equal parts by the valley of Glenmore, or the Great Glen, which crosses it from the south-west to the north-east. This glen is now traversed by the Caledonian Canal, which, begun in 1803 and finally completed in 1847, at a total cost of £1,300,000, forms a line of inland navigation between the east and west seas, from the Moray Firth on the north-east to Loch Linnhe on the south-west. It has a length of 601 miles, including about 37 miles of lakes, namely, Loch Ness with a length of 23 miles, Loch Oich of 4, and Loch Lochy of 10. On each side of this valley there are numerous glens and straths, separated by mountain ridges, and displaying, with their lakes and rivers, a great variety of beautiful scenery. The western half of the county is the more wild and mountainous. Its principal divisions are Moidart, Arisaig, Morar, Knoidart, and Glenelg, with the glens or valleys of Glengarry, Glenmoriston, Glenurquhart, and Strathglass. Among the numerous lakes in this portion of the county are Loch Shiel bordering on Argyll, Loch Arkaig, Loch Morar, Loch Quoich, and Loch Garry. The eastern half of the county comprises the extensive district of Badenoch, south-west of which lies Lochaber, and to the north the Aird. The principal valleys are Clenroy, Glen Spean, Strathspey, Stratherrick, Stratlidearn, and Strathmaim; and Loch Ericht on the borders of Perthshire, Loch Treig, Loch Laggan, Loch Inch, and Loch Ouchan are among the largest lakes. The greater part of the county is occupied by mountains, many of which are over 3000 feet in height, the highest summits being Ben Nevis, 4406 feet, and Cairngorm, which is partly in Banffshire, 4095 feet. The principal rivers are the Spey, the Find-horn, and the Nairn, which flow in a north-easterly direction into the Moray Firth ; the Ness, which issuing from Loch Ness flows north-eastwards, passing through the town of Inverness, and falls into the Moray Firth after a course of 6 miles ; the Lochy, which flows southwestwards from Loch Lochy, and after a course of 10 miles falls into Loch Eil near Fort William ; and the Beauly in the north of the county, which, after being joined by the Glass and two smaller streams, falls into the Beauly Firth. The small river Foyers, which flows northwards into Loch Ness, forms near the loch two beautiful falls, the one 30 and the other 90 feet in height.
Like the greater part of the Highlands of Scotland, Inverness-shire rests on the Old Laurentian gneiss. The Old Red conglomerate is found in Glenmore and along the sea-coast. Granite, gneiss, limestone, slate, marble, and brick-clay abound in many parts. The general direction of the rocks is from south-west to north-east. The upper part of lien Nevis is composed of beautiful porphyry. Lead has been found on Ben Nevis and in Glengarry, but is not worked. Silver and iron ore have also been met with in small quantities. The want of coal renders the limestone of little value. On account of the irregular surface the climate of Inverness-shire is very diversified, and in many parts it is very unfavourable for the prosecution of agriculture.
According to the agricultural returns for 1880, the total area of arable land was 126,306 acres, or 4.6 per cent. (4.2 in 1870), of which 39,584, or 1.5 per cent. (1.1 in 1870), were under corn crops, 19,513, or 0.7 per cent. (0.7 also in 1870), under green crops, 27,155, or 1.0 per cent. (09 in 1870), under rotation grasses, 39,140, or 1.4 per cent. (1.2 in 1870), under permanent pasture, and 914 fallow. There were 160,656 acres under wood. Within the last twenty-five years great progress has been made in the reclamation of waste land, the arable land in 1855 extending only to 42,030 acres. There are nearly 300,000 acres of deer forests, and about 1,700,000 of heath land, one half of which affords pasturage for sheep, the other half being of no value except for grouse shooting. From the trees found in great numbers in the peat-bogs of the county it would appear to have been at an early period thickly covered with wood. Strathspey is still celebrated for its great forests ; and the natural woods on Loch Arkaig, in Glengarry, Glenmoriston, Stratliglass, Strathfarrar, and at the head of Loch Shiel are also very extensive. The forests consist chiefly of oak, fir, birch, ash, mountain ash, holly, elm, hazel, and Scotch poplar. There are also extensive plantations of larch, spruce, silver fir, beech, and plane. Part of the great Caledonian forest extends for several miles near the Perthshire boundary. The most unproductive portion of the county is that to the north-west of the Caledonian Canal, although it includes several patches of highly cultivated land. In the low districts surrounding the county town the soil and climate are both excellent, and good crops of all kinds are raised, which are not much later in reaching maturity than is the earlier districts of Scotland. The soil of the Badenoch and Laggan districts is generally good, but the climate is very uncertain, and much injury is often caused i by early frosts. In many districts the grain in late seasons never reaches full maturity. In the whole of the Western Isles the soil is generally poor, and the moist climate renders it very difficult to secure the crops in good condition.
The number of holdings in June 1880 was 6142. Of these there Were 5616 of 50 acres and under, with a total extent of 47,772 acres ; 248 were between 50 and 100 acres, total 17,407 acres ; 237 between 100 and 300 acres, total 39,746 acres; 30 between 300 and 500 acres, total 11,408 acres; 9 between 500 and 1000 acres, total 6029 acres; and 2 above 1000 acres, total extent 4057 acres. Considerable enterprise has been shown in many districts in the improvement of land, and on the larger farms the best modern implements of husbandry are in use. The crofter system has very much decreased on the mainland, and some of the crofters now have leases of five, ten, or fourteen years, and have largely increased their cultivated holdings by reclamation. On the larger farms a nineteen years' lease is almost universal, and a five-shift course of cropping is the most common. Large numbers of admirable farm stcadings have been erected within late years, and considerable progress has been made in the construction of suitable cottages for married servants. The acreage nnder wheat has been decreasing very much within late years : the area sown in 1878 was 352 acres, in 1879 only 82, and in 1880 146, while in 1855 it was 1539 acres. The best quality raised has always been that of the Aird and Beauly districts. Barley and bore were grown on 7855 acres in 1880 instead of 2220 in 1855. Much good barley is produced in the middle districts, such as Strathspey, Strathnairn, Strathglass, and Glennrquhart. Bcre is grown mostly in the late districts and in the Western Isles. Most of the barley is manufactured into whisky in the county. Oats occupy more than three-fourths of the area under grain,-30,714 acres in 1880, instead of 13,704 in 1855. A considerable portion of this crop is of a light and inferior quality, the best being that produced on heavy clay land. There is a considerable area under rye, 814 acres in 1880 as compared with 125 in 1855. It is grown chiefly on the sandy hills south and east of Inverness. Under beans and pease there were in 1880 only 13 and 35 acres respectively. The extent under turnips and Swedes in 1880 was 11,084 acres, the proportion under Swedes being about one-sixth. Artificial manure is extensively used for the turnip crop, and on many soils the yield is very heavy. Potatoes were grown on 8252 acres in 1880. The dry soil irf many parts of the country is well adapted for this crop, and on the more extensive farms they often constitute a large item in the farmer's profits.
The number of cattle in 1880 was 51,287 (24,061 in 1855), or an average of 40.5 to every hundred acres under cultivation, the average for Scotland being 23'2, and that for the United Kingdom 20.7. Of these the number of cows and heifers in milk or in calf was 22,208, and the number under two years of age 21,673. The principal breed is the Highland, the largest and best herds of which are in the Western Isles. There are a few of the polled and shorthorn breeds, and Ayrshire cows have in many places been introduced for dairy purposes. Crosses of an indefinite description are numerous in the lowlands, but in many places their quality has been improved by the use of polled or shorthorn bulls. The number of horses in 1880 was 8938 (3485 in 1855), or 7.0 to every hundred acres under cultivation, the proportion for Scotland and also for the United Kingdom being 4'1. Large numbers of Highland ponies are raised on the bill farms. The breed of agricultural horses, which in 1880 numbered 6758, has been much improved by the introduction of Clydesdale stallions. The sheep numbered 711,910 in 1880 (567,694 in 1855), or 563.7 to every hundred acres under cultivation, the proportion for Scotland being 149'3 and for the United Kingdom 63'5. The majority are either Cheviots or blackfaced, of which the numbers are about equal, Cheviots having been for some time on the increase. Leicesters and half-breeds are kept in several of the lower districts of the country. The number of pigs in 1880 was 2897 (1667 in 1855), an average of 2'3 to every hundred acres under cultivation, the average for Scotland being 2.6 and that for the United Kingdom 6.0. Not much attention is paid to the character of the breed, especially by the crofters, who rear this stock chiefly for domestic consumption.
According to the Returns of Owners of Lands and Heritages, 1872-73, the land was divided among 1867 proprietors ; its gross annual value was £361,848, 5s, and the average value of the whole 2s. 91d. per acre. Of the owners 831 per cent. possessed less.than 1 acre. There were no fewer than thirty proprietors owning more than 20,000 acres, while nineteen possessed upwards of 50,000 acres each, and an aggregate of nearly 1,900,000 acres-viz., Lord Lovat, 161,574; Earl of &afield, 160,224; Macleod of Macleod, 141,679 ; Evan Baillie, 141,148; Lord Macdonald, 129,919; The Mackintosh, 124,181; Donald Cameron of Lochiel, 109,574; Sir G. Macpherson Grant, 103,372 ; Edward Ellice, 99,545 ; The Chisholm, 94,328 ; John Gordon of Cluny, 84,404; Sir John P. Ordc, 81,099; Trustees of J. M. Grant, 74,646; Mrs Campbell, 74,000; Colonel George G. 'Walker, 70,940; Sir john W. Ramsdell, 60,400; Earl of Dunmore, 00,000; James Baird, 60,000 ; Edward H. Scott, 59,123.
Salmon yield a considerable rent on the rivers Lochy, Beauly, and Ness, and are found also in other streams and resort to Loch Inch and the other lakes of Badenoch.
The manufactures of the county are unimportant. At Inverness there are two woollen manufactories, two Beauly, Carbost distillery in Skye, and two in the neighbourKirkton near Inverness.
The Highland Railway traverses the eastern corner of the county, and enters it again near Cam pbeltown, skirting its northern shore by Inverness and Beauly.
The only royal burgh is Inverness, the county town.
fisheries ; Kingussie (645) ; and Portree (893), in the Isle with three others in returning a second.
At an early period Inverness was included in the kingdom of the Northern Picts, its mainland portion forming part of the provinces of Moravia and Arguthecla. The latter province with the islands subsequently became the possession of the Norwegians, but was afterwards known as Ergadia, and was divided into three portions, Ergadia Borealis, Ergadia qure ad Mo•aviam pertinet, and Ergadia qm-e ad Scotian pertinet. For some time the capital of the Pictish kings was at Inverness in Moravia. The province was for a considerable period ruled by the mormaers of Moray, one of whom was the well-known Macbeth. The last of these mormaers was defeated by David I. Early in the 13th century the province, which up to that time had been included under one sheriffdom, was divided into the sheriffiloms of Inverness, Elgin, and Nairn.
Among the antiquarian remains of Inverness-shire are a large number of the so-called Druidical circles, especially in the northern part of the county. At Dishes, 2 miles from Inverness, there are remarkable cromlechs ; and at Clava near Culloden there are large remains of old chambered sepulchres. Numerous traces exist of ancient pit dwellings similar to those of the Picts but of inferior masonry, and there are remains of eras hogs or old lake dwellings at the Loch of the Clans and Loch Beastly. Two examples of the old Pictish towers still exist at Gleuelg in a state of almost perfect pre- ervation and there are others in Glenmore and elsewhere. Among the vitrified forts the principal are those on the hill of Craig Phad-raig, with ten others stretching into the interior; Dundbhairdghall on Ben Nevis; and Dun Eldon or Fingal's fort on the top of a conical hill near the river Beauly. The principal examples of other ancient fortresses arc Castle Spynie, an extensive ruin on a hill about 700 feet above the plain and 2 miles east from the church of Beastly, and the remains of massive fortifications on the summit of a steep MU in the parish of Laggan. Among the old castles may be mentioned. Urquhart castle, besieged and taken by the officers of Edward I. in 1303, and Inverlochy castle near Fort William. The county formerly contained three military forts. Of these Fort George, on the Moray Firth, 12 miles east of Inverness, built in 1747-67, at a cost of £160,000 is now used only as barracks ; Fort Augustus, at the west end of Loch Ness, originally erected in 1730, and rebuilt after having been demolished by the rebels in 1745, is. now almost obliterated, a palatial Benedictine monastery having been erected on its site; Fort William, on Loch Eil, built in the reign of William III., remains in good preservation, but is inhabited by civilians. On Culloden Moor to the eastward of Inverness was fought the battle (April 10, 1746) which closed the rebellion of 1745-46.
INvEmvEss, a royal, parliamentary, and municipal burgh of Scotland, the capital of the above county, is finely situated at the northern end of Glenmore, on both sides of the river Ness, about half a mile from its mouth, and on the Highland Railway, 144 miles north-north-west of Perth, and 109 west-north-west from Aberdeen. It is built principally on the right bank of the river, which is crossed by a suspension bridge, a wooden bridge, and a railway bridge of stone. Though very ancient, the town presents quite a modern appearance, and possesses wide and handsome streets, and beautiful suburbs with numerous fine villas. Lately great improvements have taken place, several new streets having been laid out within a recent period. On an eminence to the south-west of the town stood an ancient castle in which Macbeth is said to have murdered Duncan. This was razed to the ground by Malcolm Canmore, who erected another on an eminence overhanging the town on the south. The original castle was a royal fortress, and that erected by Malcolm continued to be so till its destruction in 1746. Its site is now occupied by a castellated structure erected in 1835, and comprising the court-house, county buildings, and jail. At the northern extremity of the town Cromwell erected a fort capable of accommodating a thousand men ; this was demolished at the Restoration, but a considerable part of the ramparts still remains. In the centre of the town is the town-hall, completed in 1880, in front of which is a, fountain so constructed as to contain the lozenge-shaped stone called Clach-nu-C wham, or " Stone of the Tub," from its having served as a resting-place for women in carrying water from the river. It was regarded as the palladium of the town, and is said to have been carefully preserved after the town was burned by Donald of the Isles. The spire of the old jail, which is of fine proportions, now serves as a belfry for the town clock. In the tower there is a slight twist caused by a shock of earthquake in 1816. The other principal buildings are the episcopal cathedral of St Andrew in the Decorated Gothic style, erected in 1866, and comprising nave, side aisles, transepts, and apsidal chancel ; the academy, incorporated by royal charter in 1792, endowed originally with £20,000, to which in 1803 was added ,:25,000 left by Captain W. Mackintosh for the education of boys of certain families of that name ; the collegiate school, the high school, the school of science and art, the new market buildings, erected in 1871 at a cost of £3100, the northern infirmary, and (outside the burgh) the new depot for soldiers at Millburn. The cemetery is finely situated on a hill south-west of the town, and about a mile and a half west of the town is the lunatic asylum, erected in 1861. On Craig Phadraig hill, about a mile west of the town, there is a vitrified fort supposed to have been the residence of the Pictish kings. The manufacturing industries are not extensive ; but there are iron-works, breweries, tanneries, woollen factories, and saw-mills. The harbour affords good accommodation for vessels, and there is considerable trade with Aberdeen, Leith, and London on the east coast, and by means of the Caledonian Canal with Liverpool, Glasgow, and Ireland. Shipbuilding is also carried on. The exports are chiefly sheep, wool, and agricultural produce, and the imports coal and provisions. In 1879 the number of vessels that entered the harbour was 2859, with a total burthen of 309,121 tons, while 2788 cleared, of 304,302 tons burthen. The population of the parliamentary burgh in the ten years 1861-71 increased from 12,509 to 14,46G, and in 1881 it numbered 17,366. Inverness unites with the burghs of Forres, Fortrose, and Nairn in returning a member to Parliament.
Inverness is of great antiquity, but the exact date of its origin is unknown. At an early period it was incorporated as a town, and it was one of the Pictish capitals. In 1233 an abbey of the Dominicans was founded there by Alexander II 1. From William the Lion the town received four charters, one of which created it a royal burgh. In 1411 it was burned by Donald of the Isles on his way to the battle of lIarlaw. The town was visited in 1427 by James I., who held a parliament within its walls, and in 1562 it was visited by Queen Mary, who, being refused admission into the castle, caused it to be taken and the governor hanged. During the civil wars the Fastle, was repeatedly taken and occupied by the rival forces ; and in 1746 it was blown up by the troop s of Prince Charles Stuart. See Invernessiana, by Charles Fraser Mackintosh, 1875.