Kalgan, Or Cii Ang-k Ea-kow
KALGAN, or CII ANG-K EA-KOW, a large city of China, in the province of Chih-li, with a population estimated at from 70,000 to 100,000. It lies in the line of the Great Wall, 137 miles north-west of Peking, " commanding one of the most important passes between China and Mongolia and the main road of the overland route between China and Russia," (Bushell). Fritsche gives its position as in 40°50 N. lat. and 114° 54 E. long., and its height above the sea as 2810 feet. The valley amid the mountains iii which it is situated is under excellent cultivation, and thickly studded with villages. Kalgan consists of a walled town or fortress and suburbs 3 miles long. The streets are wide, and excellent shops are abundant ; but the ordinary houses have rather an odd appearance, from the fact that, like those of Erzeroum, they are usually roofed with earth and become covered with green sward. Large quantities of soda are manufactured ; and the position of the town renders it the seat of a very extensive transit trade. In early autumn long lines of camels come in from all quarters for the conveyance of the tea-chests from Kalgan to Kiakhta ; and each caravan usually makes three journeys in the winter. There is an excellent inn in the town frequented by the Russian merchants, some of whom have permanent residences and warehouses just outside the gate. On the way to Peking the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with marble figures of monkeys, lions, tigers, and other animals. The name Kalgan is Mongolian, and means a barrier or "gate-beam."