IVAN (or JOANN, i.e., JOHN) I., grand-duke of Moscow from 1328 to 1340, was surnamed Kalita in allusion to the " purse " which he always carried at his girdle. Some have imagined that it contained alms for distribution ; others with greater probability look upon it as characteristic of the miserly habits of the prince. The great importance of Ivan in Russian history is that he was the consolidator of the power of Moscow, the nucleus out of which the empire was to be formed at a future period. By treachery he procured from Uzbek, the Tatar Khan, the ruin of his rival the prince of Tver, and by craft and bribery made many additions to his territory. Ile also induced the metropolitan to reside at Moscow, which brought dignity and influence to the city.