dwars district western miles
JALNA, or JAm.xn, a town in Hyderabad state, southern India, 19° 50' 30" N. lat., and 75° 56' E. long., 240 miles north-west of Sikandarabad (Secunderabad), 38 east of Aurangabad, and 210 miles north-east of Bombay. It has a British cantonment, situated on a gentle declivity, at an elevation of 1652 feet above the sea, in an arid tract of country ; the lines were built in 1827. Two miles southwest of Rana is the old town of the same name, once the seat of a flourishing trade, but now rapidly decaying.
JALPAIGURt, or JULPIGOREE, a British district of India, forming the north-eastern part of the Rajsbahi Kuch Behar division, under the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, and lying between 26° 0' 35" and 26° 59' 30" N. lat., and between 88° 22' 40" and 89° 55' 20" E. long. It consists of an irregularly shaped tract south of Bhutan and north of the state of Kuch Behar and Rangpur district, with an area (1875) of 290,464 square miles. The district divides into a " regulation" tract, lying towards the southwest, and a strip of country, about 22 miles in width, running along the foot of the Himalayas, and known as the Western Dwars. The former is a continuous expanse of level paddy fields, only broken by groves of bamboos, palms, and fruit-trees. The Western Dwars are, for the most part, overgrown with grassy jungle, the secure home of large game, and are everywhere traversed by torrents, which, on the higher slopes, lose themselves beneath the sandy soil. The frontier towards Bhutan is formed by the Sinchuld mountain range, some peaks of which attain an elevation of 6000 feet. It is thickly wooded from base to summit. The principal rivers, proceeding from west to east, are the Mahananda, Karatoya, Tista, Jaldhakii, Duduya, Mujnai, Torsha, Kaljani, Itaidhak, and Sankos. The most important is the Tista, which forms a valuable means of water communication. The Government forest reserves in the Western Dwars cover a total area of 342.54 square miles. Lime is quarried in the lower Bhutan hills. During the last few years tea-planting has been introduced, with every prospect of success.
The parliamentary abstract of 1878 gives a population of 418,665. The returns from the Dears were not drawn up in the form adopted for Bengal generally. The remaining part has a population of 327,985 (169,288 males and 158,697 females), comprising. 25: Europeans, 7 Eurasians, 8 Chinese, 144 Nepalis, 553 aborigines, 148,043 semi-Hindnized aborigines, 32,155 Hindus according tc caste, 2070 Hindus not recognizing caste, and 144,980 Mahonmetans. The great bulk of the population belongs to the semi-Hinduized tribe known as Koch or Rajbansi, which numbers 137,135, and ascertained to form as much as two-thirds of the total inhabitant in the Western Dwars. Rice is the staple crop in all puts of tin district. Mustard seed is extensively grown ; cotton is the staple of the Dwars, jute and tobacco of the regulation tract. Irrigation is common in the Western Dwars. There is still sonic span land uncultivated in the regulation tract ; and in the Western Dwars it has been estimated that about three-fourths of the land now waste is capable of cultivation. Of late years trade has been stimulated by the demand for agricultural produce from the south, and by the institutions of fairs on the Bhutan frontier. The chief exports are jute, tobacco, thither, and rice ; the chief imports are piece-goods, salt, and betel-nuts.
Education encounters great difficulties in Jalpaiguri, because the people are not gathered into villages, each family living in its own sequestered homestead. In 1875 the number of schools was 153, with 3263 pupils. The climate in the vicinity of Jalpaigurf town does not materially differ from that common to northern Bengal, except that the rainfall is heavier, and during the cold months fogs and mists are of daily occurrence. The average annual rainfall is over 100 inches ; the average temperature is 76' Fahr. The climate of the Western Dwars is markedly different ; the hot weather disappears altogether, and the rains last continuously from April to October. The average annual rainfall at Baxd is 280 inches ; the temperature averages 74° Fahr. The principal diseases are malarious fevers, splenitis, enlargement of the liver, diarrhoea, dysentery, and goitre. Of late years some very fatal outbreaks of cholera have occurred.
The district of Jalpaigurf first came into existence in 1869, when the Titalya subdivision of Rangpur was incorporated with the Western Dwars, and erected into an independent revenue unit. The permanently settled portion of Jalpaigurs has no history of its Own, apart from the parent district of Rangpur. The Wegtern Dwars became British territory as the result of the war with Bhutan in 1864-65. The newly acquired territory was immediately formed into the two districts of the Eastern and Western Dwars, the former of which has since been incorporated with the Assam district of Goalpara. The remainder, with the exception of a subdivision, was formed into the new district of Jtilpai,buri with the addition of a portion taken from the unwieldy jurisdiction of Rangpur. Cultivation is now rapidly extending throughout the Dwars ; and it is believed that the population has been doubled during the ten years that have elapsed since billfish annexation. From motives of precaution, a regiment of native infantry is stationed in permanent cantonments at the hill pass of Baxa.
J.-11.rAtGuni, the administrative head-quarters of the above district, is situated on the west bank of the Tista, in 26° 32' 20" N. lat., 88° 45' 38" E. long. This town has only risen into importance since the creation of the district in 1869, since which date its population has doubled. The population is estimated at between 4000 and 5000, includina. the regiment of native infantry in the canton- ments, which lie south of the civil station.
JAM. See JAMS AND JELLIES, p. 564.