IRAK ADJEM1 (i.e., Persian Irak), also called JEBAL (Arabic, mountains) and KOHISTAN (Hindustani, mountain-land), is the most important of the eleven provinces of Persia, comprising the larger part of the western half of the country, or upwards of 138,280 square miles. To the north lie Azerbijan, Milan, and Mazanderan, to the east Khorasan, to the south Farsistan and Khuzistan, and to the west Ardilan and Luristan. The mountains for the most part run west and east, or north-west and south-east. Among the important valleys are those of Hamadan, Ispahan, and Yezdikbast. The principal river - though it only belongs to Irak Adjemi in the middle part of its course - is the Kizil Uezeu or Sefid Rud, which drains about 25,000 square miles of country, rising between Hamadan and Tabriz, in that part of the Kurdistan highlands which bears the name of Desch Parmak or Pentchangusht (Five-Finger Mountain), flowing north-north-east and then east to its junction with the Hasht Rud, and finally breaking through the Elbnrz range and finding its way to the Caspian. The rest of the rivers for the most part flow towards the Great Salt Desert, which forms part of the wide eastern plain that stretches eastward into Khorasan. The following are points whose position has been fixed. Teheran, the capital, 35° 40' 33" N. let., 51° 24' 54" E. long. ; Kum, 34° 39' N. lat., 53° 53' 54" E. long. ; Kushan, 31° N. lat., 51° 26' 39" E. long ; Ispahan, 32° 37' 30" N. lat., and 51' 39' E. long. The name Irak Adjemi is a modgrn one, and Beynaud confesses that he knows no other origin of its use than the fact that the Seljukids who reigned over Irak and bore the title of Sultan el Irak were also rulers of the Jebal. The country corresponds in large part to the ancient Media.