INNOCENT X., Giovanni Battista Pamphili, pope from 1644 to 1655, was born at Rome in 1574, attained the dignity of cardinal in 1629, and through French influence was chosen to succeed Urban VIII. on September 15, 1644.
Throughout his reign the influence exercised over him by Olympia Maklalchina, his deceased brother's wife, was very great, and such as to give rise to gross scandal, for which, however, there appears to have been no adequate ground. He naturally enough objected to the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia, against which his nuncio in his name vainly protested, and against which he issued the bull " Zelo domus Dei " in November 1648. The most important of his doctrinal decisions was his condemnation of the five Jansenist propositions in 1653. The avarice of his female counsellor gave to his reign a tone of oppression and sordid greed winch probably it would not otherwise have shown, for personally he was not without noble and reforming impulses. He died January 5, 1655, and was succeeded by Alexander VII.