national crime justice data
The various agencies of the U.S. Department of Justice are the major sources of crime and justice data in America. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) compiles statistics on virtually every area of crime and reports that data in a number of publications. The annual BJS Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, prepared by the Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, State University of New York at Albany, is a comprehensive compilation of criminal justice statistics. The annual BJS National Crime Victimization Survey provides data for several studies, the most important of which is Criminal Victimization in the United States. Other valuable BJS publications include Education and Correctional Populations (2003), Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002 (2003), Money Laundering Offenders, 1994-2001 (2003), Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000 (2002), Prisoners in 2002 (2003), and Capital Punishment, 2002 (2003).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) collects crime data from state law enforcement agencies through its Uniform Crime Reports program. The FBI annual Crime in the United States is the most important source of information on crime reported to law enforcement agencies. Other important annual publications include Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, Terrorism in the United States, Hate Crime Statistics, and The Measurement of White Collar Crime Using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Data.
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) published the following: Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Victimization (2002), Juvenile Court Statistics, 1999 (2003), Highlights of the 2001 National Youth Gang Survey (2003), National Youth Gang Survey Trends, 1996 to 2000 (2002), Statistical Briefing Book (Online) (2004), and Detention in Delinquency Cases, 1990–1999. The OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin is a major source of current information about juvenile crime; its "Juvenile Arrests 2001" (Howard N. Snyder, 2003) was also helpful.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury provides data on bombings, arson, and weapons offenses. Of special importance was the First Year Report for the President (1997) of the National Church Arson Task Force, which is jointly headed by the FBI and the ATF. The Office of National Drug Control Policy provided information from its reports, National Drug Control Strategy (2004) and The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992–1998 (2001). The National Criminal Justice Association (Washington, DC) monitors crime legislation and issues, as reported in its periodical Justice Bulletin.
The Federal Trade Commission, through its Identify Theft Clearinghouse, published National and State Trends in Fraud and Identity Theft, January-December, 2003 (2004). The National Institute of Justice provided information on drug use among persons arrested in Preliminary Data on Drug Use and Related Matters among Adult Arrestees and Juvenile Detainees, 2002 (2003) and the 2000 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring: Annual Report (2003). The Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Applied Studies published Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (2003).
Several organizations are devoted to combating prejudice and civil rights abuses in the United States. The Anti-Defamation League produces Map of State Statutes for Hate Crimes as a reference guide on the nation's hate crime legislation. The Southern Poverty Law Center (Montgomery, Alabama) publishes data on hate crimes in its periodical Intelligence Report.
The Sentencing Project conducts research on criminal justice issues and promotes sentencing reform. They published Comparative International Rates of Incarceration: An Examination of Causes and Trends by Marc Mauer, (2003). Key information was also acquired from polling results reported by the Gallup Organization. Also used was Monitoring the Future Study National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings 2001 (2002), completed by the Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). The National Law Journal provided valuable survey data on Americans' opinions of the death penalty. The Violence Policy Center reported on the use of guns in high-profile shootings in its report Where'd They Get Their Guns? An Analysis of the Firearms Used in High-Profile Shootings, 1963 to 2001 (2002).
Other publications used in this book include the 2002 National Retail Security Survey (Richard Hollinger et al., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2003). The Highway Loss Data Institute provided valuable information on trends in motor vehicle thefts. The Computer Security Institute published the 2003 Computer Crime and Security Survey (2003).