Drugs Physical Activity Surgery and Other Treatment for Overweight and Obesity - Physical Activity, Medication, Surgery, Counseling And Behavioral Therapy, Might Weight Loss Be Harmful?
amish exercise week americans
Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while movement and methodical physical exercise save it and preserve it.
One credible hypothesis about the source of the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States is the progressive decrease in physical activity expended in daily life—for work, transportation, and household chores. Some researchers contend that the average caloric intake of Americans has not substantially increased;
instead by reducing daily physical activity, the caloric imbalance between calories consumed and expended has shifted to favor weight gain. While no data conclusively prove this hypothesis, evidence does support it.
Obesity: STRRIDE-A Randomized Controlled Study," Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 1, January 12, 2004). The study randomly assigned 182 sedentary, overweight adults aged forty to sixty-five to one of four groups: a control group with no exercise; supervised low-dose/moderate-intensity exercise equivalent to walking twelve miles per week; low-dose/vigorous-intensity exercise equivalent
to jogging twelve miles per week; or high-dose/vigorous-intensity exercise equivalent to jogging twenty miles per week. The subjects were advised to maintain their weight and not to change their diets. The researchers followed the subjects for eight months and then measured weight, body-fat, waist circumference and lean muscle mass.
Among the recent studies that support the premise that Americans' sedentary lifestyles have precipitated the obesity epidemic is research that examined the diets of an Amish community in Ontario, Canada. In "Physical Activity in an Old Order Amish Community" (Medicine & Science in
Sports & Exercise, vol. 36, no. 1, January 2004), researchers described the "Amish paradox—" that despite a diet that is high in fat, calories, and refined sugar, the Amish community had a scant 4% obesity rate, compared to 31% in the general U.S. population. Exercise science researcher David Bassett and his colleagues chose this particular Amish population because it has rejected
technological advances such as automobiles and electricity, and its physically demanding lifestyle is in many ways comparable to the way Americans lived 150 years ago. (Other Amish communities that have assumed occupations less physically active than farming have obesity rates that are similar to those found in the general U.S. population.) The researchers analyzed the daily routines of about 100
Amish people and found that men averaged about 18,000 steps per day and women about 14,000, compared to the recommended 10,000 steps per day that most Americans struggle to achieve. The Amish men performed about ten hours per week of vigorous exercise and women spent about three-and-a-half hours engaged in heavy lifting, shoveling, digging, shoeing horses, or tossing straw bales. Men devoted an
additional forty-three hours per week and women an average of thirty-nine hours to such moderate physical activities as gardening, performing farm-related chores, or doing laundry.
In sharp contrast to the Amish farmers, many Americans in the early twenty-first century are not physically active. The Centers for Disease Control defines the minimum recommended physical activity level for adults as "moderate-intensity activity at least thirty minutes per day, five or more days per week, or
vigorous-intensity activity at least twenty minutes per day, three or more days pe…
Pharmacotherapy for weight loss involves the use of prescription drugs as one of several strategies including diet, physical activity, behavioral therapy, counseling, and participation in group-support programs that in combination can work to effect weight loss. Adding weight-loss medications to a comprehensive treatment
program consisting of diet, physical activity, and counseling increases weigh…
Weight-loss surgery is considered a treatment option only for people for whom all other treatment methods have failed and who suffer from clinically severe obesity—BMI of 40 or greater or BMI of 35 or greater in the presence of comorbidities. (Clinically severe obesity was formerly known as morbid obesity, indicating its
potential to cause disease.) Two types of surgical procedures have bee…
Weight-loss counseling and behavioral therapy aim to assist people to develop the skills needed to identify and modify eating and activity behaviors, and change thinking patterns that undermine weight-control efforts. Behavioral strategies include self-monitoring of weight, food intake, and physical activity; identifying and
controlling stimuli that provoke overeating; problem identification and p…
Successful weight-loss treatments generally result in reduced blood pressure, reduced triglycerides, increased HDL cholesterol, and reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Weight loss of as little as 5% to 10% of initial weight produces measurable health benefits and may prevent illnesses among people at risk. These
findings suggest that treatment should not exclusively focus on the medical…
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