species information endangered national
A first source of information on endangered species is the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The Fish and Wildlife Service oversees the Endangered Species List. Their comprehensive Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered/) includes news stories on threatened and endangered species, information about laws protecting endangered species, regional contacts for endangered species programs, and a searchable database called the Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS) with information on all listed species (http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/StartTESS.do). Each listed species has an information page that provides details regarding the status of the species (whether it is listed as threatened or endangered and in what geographic area), Federal Register documents pertaining to listing, information on habitat conservation plans and National Wildlife Refuges pertinent to the species, and, for many species, links to descriptions of biology and natural history. Particularly informative are the recovery plans published for a large number of listed species. These detail the background research on the natural history of endangered species and also list measures that should be adopted to aid in conservation.
The Fish and Wildlife Service also maintains updated tables of the number of threatened and endangered species by taxonomic group, as well as lists of U.S. threatened and endangered species. The agency publishes the bimonthly Endangered Species Bulletin (available online at http://endangered.fws.gov/bulletin.html), which provides information on new listings, delistings, and reclas-sifications, in addition to news articles on endangered species. Finally, the FWS prints an annual report on expenditures made under the Endangered Species Act. These reports are available at the Web site http://www.fws.gov/endangered/pubs/expenditurereports.html.
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is responsible for the oversight of threatened and endangered marine animals and anadromous fish. Valuable information is available at the agency's Web site (http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov). The NMFS is a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which also operates the National Marine Mammal Laboratory at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (http://nmml.afsc.noaa.gov), the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (http://nefsc.noaa.gov) and the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov).
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) performs research on many imperiled animal species. Data sheets on individual species are available from the USGS National Wildlife Health Center at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov. Other important USGS centers include the Western Ecological Research Center (http://www.werc.usgs.gov), the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov), the Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) information resource at the Center for Aquatic Resource Studies (http://nas.er.usgs.gov), the Biological Resources Division (http://biology.usgs.gov), and the Center for Biological Informatics, which maintains the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) at http://www.nbii.gov.
Information on federal lands and endangered species management can be found at the National Wildlife Refuge Web site (http://refuges.fws.gov), the National Park System Web site (http://www.nps.gov), and the National Forest Service Web site (http://www.fs.fed.us/). National Wildlife Refuge brochures are available at http://library.fws.gov/refuges/index.html.
Endangered Ecosystems of the United States—A Preliminary Assessment of Loss and Degradation, a 1995 publication from the National Biological Service, remains the most up-iresto-iresdate assessment of U.S. ecosystems. Information on water quality in the United States is available at the Web site of the Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/water. Information on wetlands can be found at the Fish and Wildlife Service's "National Wetlands Inventory" page at http://www.nwi.fws.gov.
Data and information related to global warming are available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Institute for Space Studies at http://data.giss.nasa.gov and at NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory) Global Monitoring Division (http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov).
Other federal agencies that proved useful for this book were the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, which published the 2004 report An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century, Final Report (available at http://www.oceancommission.gov) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which maintains a database of the nation's dams at the Web site http://crunch.tec.army.mil/nid/webpages/nid.cfm. The U.S. Department of the Interior operates the National Atlas of the United States, an online mapping tool and information source available at http://nationalatlas.gov. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) publishes a number of reports assessing the policies and effectiveness of the Endangered Species Program. GAO reports are available at http://www.gao.gov.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) has news articles on a wide array of worldwide conservation issues at its Web site (http://www.iucn.org). Information from the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is also available online at http://www.redlist.org. This site includes an extensive database of information on IUCN-listed threatened species. Species information available includes Red List endangerment category, the year the species was assessed, the countries in which the species is found, a list of the habitat types the species occupies, major threats to continued existence, and current population trends. Brief descriptions of ecology and natural history and of conservation measures for protecting listed species are also available. Searches can also be performed by taxonomic group, Red List categories, country, region, or habitat.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has information on international trade in endangered species at http://www.cites.org. This includes a species database of protected fauna and flora in the three CITES appendices, as well as information on the history and aims of the convention and its current programs.
Numerous private organizations are dedicated to the conservation of listed species and their ecosystems. Readers with interest in a particular endangered species are advised to conduct Internet searches to locate these groups. The Save the Manatee Club (http://www.savethemanatee.org), which focuses on West Indian manatees, and the Save Our Springs Alliance (http://www.sosalliance.org), which focuses on protection of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, are only two of many examples.
The World Conservation Union's 1997 IUCN Red-List of Threatened Plants is a valuable resource on threatened plant species.
BirdLife International (http://www.birdlife.net) provides diverse resources on global bird conservation. It is an association of nongovernmental conservation organizations that has over two million members worldwide.
AmphibiaWeb (http://amphibiaweb.org) provides detailed information on global amphibian declines. It maintains a watch list of recently extinct and declining species, discusses potential causes of amphibian declines and deformities, and also provides detailed information on amphibian biology and conservation. AmphibiaWeb also sponsors a discussion board where readers can submit questions regarding amphibians.
TRAFFIC (http://www.traffic.org) was originally founded to help implement the CITES treaty but now addresses diverse issues in wildlife trade. It is a joint wildlife trade monitoring organization of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The TRAFFIC Web site contains articles on current topics related to wildlife trade. In addition, TRAFFIC also publishes several periodicals and report series on wildlife trade, including the TRAFFIC Bulletin, TRAFFIC Online Report Series, and Species in Danger Series. These publications are available online at http://www.traffic.org/publications/index.html.
The International Whaling Commission has a Web site at http://www.iwcoffice.org/. Information on whaling regulations, whale sanctuaries, and other issues associated with whales and whaling can be accessed there.
The Gallup Organization provided information related to public polls conducted in recent years concerning environmental issues.
Information Plus sincerely thanks all of the organizations listed above for the valuable information they provide.