immigration department refugee united
The United States government provides most of the statistical information concerning immigration and naturalization. Much of the information comes from various branches of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The primary sources are the 2003 Statistical Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (Office of Immigration Statistics, Department of Homeland Security, 2003) and Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (2003, ongoing), an online publication of DHS's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), which assumed the responsibilities of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on March 1, 2003. The USCIS is responsible for processing visas and petitions for naturalization, asylum, and refugee status. These publications are the most complete statistical compilations available on immigrants, illegal aliens, and refugees who come to the United States. The INS also published Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: 1990 and 2000 (2003) and Legalization Effects: Lawful Permanent Residence and Naturalization through 2001 (2002). The DHS Office of Immigration Statistics tracked workers admitted on temporary visas in Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B): Fiscal Year 2003. DHS published the Department of Homeland Security Budget in Brief: Fiscal Year 2005.
Because immigration affects so many areas, several other government agencies are also involved. The Office of Refugee Resettlement of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) monitors the nation's efforts to resettle incoming refugees. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Annual Report to Congress—2003 reviews the refugee situation and analyzes the impact and financial cost of refugee admissions. HHS also published Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Fifth Annual Report to Congress (2003). The HHS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) monitors communicable diseases worldwide and provides reports of trends within the United States, including "Trends in TB Cases in the U.S. 2003" (CDC 2005).
The Bureau of Consular Affairs of the U.S. Department of State detailed results of the diversity lottery in Diversity Visa Lottery 2005 (DV-2005) Results, tracked past refugee arrivals and anticipated future refugee levels in Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2005—Report to Congress, reported U.S. and international data in Trafficking in Persons Report (2004), and tracked nonimmigrant visas issued in Report of the Visa Office (December 2004). The Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, an agency of the State Department, administers U.S. refugee assistance and admissions programs. Its data on refugee admissions ceilings and admissions were used in developing this book along with Emergency Refugee and Migration Fiscal Year 2003 and Summary of Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2004.
The U.S. Department of Justice published Follow-Up Report on INS Efforts to Improve the Control of Nonimmigrant Overstays (2002) and The Immigration and Naturalization Service's Removal of Aliens Issued Final Orders (2003). The Department of Justice (DOJ) issued a June 2004 report, Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons. The DOJ detailed discrimination issues that might affect immigrants in Federal Protections against National Origin Discrimination.
The U.S. Department of Labor tracked wages and H-2A visa employers in United States Department of Labor H-2A Crop Activity Summary, Fiscal Year 2003. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service compiled data on "State-Funded Programs for Legal Immigrants." The Social Security Administration, an agency of the HHS, provides data on noncitizens receiving Supplemental Security Income in Annual Statistical Supplement 2004.
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, an independent agency that evaluates federal laws and makes recommendations to the President and Congress, published "Summary of Migrant Civil Rights Issues along the Southwest Border" (2003). The Congressional Budget Office prepared A Description of the Immigrant Population (November 2004).
The U.S. Census Bureau collects and distributes the nation's statistics. Demographic data from the bureau include Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000 (2001), The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2003 (August 2004), Current Population Reports (2004), and projections of the resident population for the nation, published by the Population Projections Program on the Internet (http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/natsum-T5.html).
The U.S. General Accountability Office (GAO), the investigative arm of Congress, has studied many aspects of immigration. Some of the reports used in this publication include Overstay Tracking: A Key Component of Homeland Security and Layered Defense (March 2, 2004), Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: Department of Justice (2003), Illegal Aliens: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Expedited Removal Process (2000), Border Security: New Policies and Procedures Are Needed to Fill Gaps in the Visa Revocation Process (2003), Homeland Security: Justice Department's Project to Interview Aliens after September 11, 2001 (2003), and Homeland Security: Challenges to Implementing the Immigration Interior Enforcement Strategy (2003).
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), an arm of The Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.), is a think tank that works exclusively for members and committees of Congress. CRS publications used in the preparation of the book include Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress (K. Larry Storrs, 2001), Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues (Ruth Ellen Wasem and Geoffrey K. Collver, 2001), Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY 1998–FY 2000 (Vee Burke, 2002), Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy (Andorra Bruno, 2002), Welfare Reform: An Issue Overview (Vee Burke, 2003), and Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Estimates since 1986 (September 15, 2004).
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) provided international data on asylum seekers in Asylum Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries, 2004.
Organizations that support and oppose immigration have published extensive information on various immigration issues. Reports used in this book include A Fiscal Portrait of the Newest Americans (Stephen Moore, National Immigration Forum and the Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., 1998), Undocumented Immigrants: Facts and Figures (Jeffrey S. Passel et al., Urban Institute, January 12, 2004), Immigrant Families and Workers: Facts and Perspectives (Randolph Capps et al., Urban Institute, 2003), Health Insurance of Children in Mixed-Status Immigrant Families (Randolph Capps et al., Urban Institute, November 2003), Snapshots of America's Families III, No. 12 (Randy Capps et al., Urban Institute, October 2003), Trends in Naturalization (Michael E. Fix et al., Urban Institute, September 2003), and The Health and Well-Being of Young Children of Immigrants (Randolph Capps et al., Urban Institute, February 8, 2005). The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) produced Measuring the Fallout: The Cost of the IRCA Amnesty after 10 Years (David Simcox, CIS, 1997), "The Coming Conflict over Asylum: Does America Need a New Asylum Policy?" (Don Barnett, CIS, Backgrounder, March 2002), "Another 50 Years of Mass Mexican Immigration: Mexican Government Report Projects Continued Flow Regardless of Economics or Birth Rates" (David Simcox, CIS, Backgrounder, March 2002), The Costs of Immigration (Federation for American Immigration Reform, Washington, D.C., 2000), "Immigration from Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States" (Steven A. Camarota, CIS, Backgrounder, July 2001), "Back Where We Started: An Examination of Trends in Immigrant Welfare Use since Welfare Reform" (Steven A. Camarota, CIS, Backgrounder, March 2003), "The Deportation Abyss: 'It Ain't Over 'Til the Alien Wins"' (Michelle Malkin, CIS, Backgrounder, September 2002), The Economy Slowed, but Immigration Didn't: The Foreign-Born Population, 2000–2004 (Stephen A. Camarota, CIS, November 2004), and A Jobless Recovery? Immigrant Gains and Native Losses (Stephen A. Camarota, CIS, October 2004). Amnesty International published Why Am I Here? Children in Immigration Detention (New York, NY, 2003). The Pew Hispanic Center studied the Mexican Immigrant population in Survey of Mexican Migrants: Attitudes about Immigration and Major Demographic Characteristics (Roberto Suro, March 2005), studied Hispanic attitudes toward education in National Survey of Latinos: Education, and evaluated academic achievement of Hispanic students in Hispanic School Achievement: Catching Up Requires Running Faster than White Youth (January 2004). Public Agenda conducted surveys of immigrants for Now That I'm Here: What America's Immigrants Have to Say About Life in the U.S. Today (January 14, 2003). The Gale Group thanks all these organizations for permission to reproduce their data and graphics. As always, The Gale Group thanks the Gallup Organization for permission to use its opinion polls.
The Newest New Yorkers 2000: Immigrant New York in the New Millennium (New York City Department of City Planning, October 2004), is the latest in a quadrennial series of in-depth studies of changing demographic trends, costs, and contributions of the immigrant population of the city. In The Multiplier Effect the National Foundation for American Policy studied immigrant children who were finalists in national math and science competitions. The Institute of International Education provided information about international students studying in the United States in Open Doors 2004 Fast Facts (2004). The Inter-American Bank, Multilateral Investment Fund completed an in-depth analysis of remittances sent to countries of origin by immigrants working in the United States in Sending Money Home: Remittance to Latin America and the Caribbean (May 2004). The Gale Group thanks these researchers for permission to reproduce their data and graphics.