Types of Crime - Rape
percent forcible rapes table
The FBI defines forcible rape as "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults or attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are included; however, statutory rape (without force) [inter-course with a consenting minor]…and other sex offenses are excluded." Rape is a crime of violence in which the victim may suffer serious physical injury and long-term psychological pain. In 2002 95,136 forcible rapes were reported to law enforcement agencies, an increase of 4.7 percent from 2001. (See Table 2.1.) Forcible rape totals show a decrease of 10.3 percent since 1993. The rate of forcible rape in 2002 was 33.0 per 100,000 females. This represents a decline of 4.3 percent from 1998, and a 19.8 percent decline from 1993 figures, but a 3.6 percent increase over 2001 figures.
For several reasons, the statistics on rape are difficult to interpret. The crime often goes unreported. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) estimates that only about one-third of the cases of completed or attempted rape are ever reported to the police. Because their data are collected through interviews, the BJS recognizes an underreporting in its statistics as well. Homosexual rape and "date rape" (sex forced upon a woman by her escort) are not included in BJS data.
Public attitudes and legal definitions of rape are changing to encompass an ever-widening range of sexual events. These actions can include varying degrees of violence, submissiveness, and injury, but all involve women having sex against their will. (By the UCR definition, the victims of forcible rape are always female. The number of reported cases of rapes of males is so small that no statistics are available.) A majority of cases involve acquaintance rape. By the late 1990s most states also recognized marital rape, for which a husband could be charged with raping his wife. David Beatty, public policy director of the National Center for Victims of Crime, commented that acquaintance rape is far more common than stranger rape. Most experts conclude that in 80 to 85 percent of all rape cases, the victim knows the defendant.
From 1979 through 1992 the rape rate increased 23 percent. Most experts attributed at least part of the
|Circumstances||Total murder victims||Husband||Wife||Mother||Father||Son||Daughter||Brother||Sister||Other family||Acquaintance||Friend||Boyfriend||Girlfriend||Neighbor||Employee||Employer||Stranger||Unknown|
|Felony type total:||2,314||4||17||4||3||8||9||4||1||32||586||50||8||18||16||0||1||595||958|
|Motor vehicle theft||16||0||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||7||6|
|Prostitution and commercialized vice||8||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||3||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||3|
|Other sex offenses||8||0||0||0||0||1||1||0||0||0||3||0||0||2||0||0||0||0||1|
|Narcotic drug laws||657||0||1||0||1||0||0||1||0||1||245||22||2||2||0||0||0||67||315|
|Suspected felony type||67||0||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||6||1||0||0||0||0||0||2||57|
|Other than felony type total:||7,097||109||516||93||88||199||184||69||17||202||2,179||257||134||348||77||4||7||999||1,615|
|Child killed by babysitter||38||0||0||0||0||1||2||0||0||7||23||3||0||0||0||0||0||1||1|
|Brawl due to influence of alcohol||153||1||6||0||3||0||2||0||0||5||68||10||1||4||0||0||0||41||12|
|Brawl due to influence of narcotics||84||0||2||0||1||0||0||2||0||3||36||3||0||3||1||0||0||8||25|
|Argument over money or property||203||0||4||5||1||0||0||0||0||7||104||13||0||3||8||0||1||17||40|
|Juvenile gang killings||911||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||221||0||0||0||0||0||0||200||489|
|*Relationship is that of victim to offender.|
|SOURCE: "Table 2.12: Murder Circumstances, by Relationship, 2002," in Crime in the United States 2002, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC, 2003|
increase in reported rape cases to a more sympathetic attitude by law enforcement authorities and a greater awareness of women's rights. After peaking in 1992, the rate steadily declined until 2002, when the rate began to climb again. (See Table 2.1.)
When and Where
In keeping with a five-year trend, rapes in 2002 occurred most frequently during the summer months of July and August. (See Table 2.10.) The rate of rape in metropolitan statistical areas in 2002 was 66.5 per 100,000 females. The rate of rape was highest in cities outside of metropolitan areas, and lower in rural counties. (See Table 1.2 in Chapter 1.) Regionally, the highest total volume of rapes (37.5 percent of all rapes) occurred in the South (the most populated region in the United States) while 13.5 percent of all forcible rapes in 2002 occurred in the Northeast. (See Table 2.2.)
Less than half (44.5 percent) of reported forcible rapes were cleared by arrest in 2002. Of persons arrested for forcible rape, 46.1 percent were under the age of 25 and 63.4 percent were white. Juveniles (under 18) amounted to 16.7 percent of all those arrested for forcible rape in 2002.