Fust, Johann

gutenberg printed bible called printing mainz florins type schiffer

FUST, JOHANN (1 , - 1466), often considered as the inventor or one of the inventors of printing, belonged to a rich and respectable burgher familyof Mainz, which is known to have flourished from 1423, and to have held many civil and religious offices, but was not related to the patrician family Fuss. The name was always written Fust, until in 1506 Johann Schoffer, in dedicating the German translation of Livy to the emperor Maximilian, called his grandfather Faust. After that the family called themselves Faust, and the Fausts of Aschaffenburg, an old and quite distinct family, placed John Fust in their pedigree as one of their most distinguished ancestors. John's brother Jacob, a goldsmith, was appointed baurneieter of the town in 1445, and was first burgomaster in 1462, when Mainz was stormed and sacked by the troops of Count Adolf of Nassau. There is no evidence that, as is commonly asserted, John Fust was himself a goldsmith. He appears to have been a money-lender or banker and speculator, better known for prudence than for uprightness and disinterestedness. His connexion with Gutenberg, who is now generally, though not universally, admitted to be the real inventor of printing, has been very variously represented, and Fust has been put forward by some as the inventor of typography, and the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg, by others as his patron and benefactor, who saw the value of his discovery and had the courage to supply him with means to carry it out. This view has been the most popular; but during the present century Fust has been frequently painted as a greedy and crafty speculator, who took advantage of Gutenberg's necessity and robbed him of the fruits of his invention. Gutenberg, many years resident in Strasburg, where he was long engaged in the experiments and attempts which resulted in his discovery of typography, is not known to have been there after 1444. His uncle Henne (or Johann) Gutenberg, senior, on 28th October 1443 took the house in Mainz called Zum Jungen, where Gutenberg afterwards carried on printing. Having already exhausted his own resources in his long-continued and costly experiments, Gutenberg, through his cousin Albrecht Gelthuss zum Echtzeller, borrowed 150 florins in Mainz 6th October 1148. This sum was quite insufficient for his purposes, and on 22d August 1459, as appears from the amount of interest afterwards claimed, he made an agreement with Fust, who was to advance him 800 gold florins to make and procure his tools and materials, which were to be security for the loan. Fust was also to give him 300 florins a year for expenses, wages, house rent, parchment, paper, ink, Arc. They were to divide the profits equally, and if they wished to separate, Gutenberg was to return the 800 florins, and the materials were to cease to be security. Fust was to have half the profits, being both holder of a mortgage and partner in the firm. Gutenberg carried on the business at Zuni Jungen, where he lived. It is difficult to ascertain precisely what books were printed while the partnership lasted. They first printed, Bays Trithemius, a vocabulary called Catholicon. This was not the Catholicon of Johannes de Janua, a folio of 748 pages, 66 lines to a full page, printed in 1460, and now considered to be the work of Gutenberg alone, but was probably a small glossary for children, now lost ; they also printed Donatus de octo partibus orationis, 27 lines to a page, of which two leaves were discovered in Mainz in the original binding of an account book of 1451. Their greatest work was the Latin Bible known as the Bible of 42 lines, because a page contains 42 lines, and also as the Mazarin Bible, because the first copy described was found in the library of Cardinal Mazarin. It was finished at latest in 1455, and is a folio of 1282 printed pages, with spaces left for the illumination of initials, and is in much smaller type than the famous and much-disputed Bible of 36 lines, also called the Bamberg Bible, because nearly all the known copies were found in the neighbourhood of Bamberg. It is also called Schelhorn's Bible, because Schelhorn described it in 1760 as the oldest printed Latin Bible, and Pfister's Bible, because ascribed. to Albert Pfister, a printer of Bamberg, who used the same type for printing many small German books, the chief of which is Boner's Ede/stein, 1461, 4to, 88 leaves, 85 woodcuts, a book of fables in German rhyme. But many eminent bibliographers believe this Bible to have been printed by Gutenberg, who used the same type in the Letters of Indulgence of 1454, and in the 27-line Donatus of 1451. The types used by Pfister are evidently old and worn, except those of the additional letters required for German, k, w, z, which are clear and sharp like the types used in the Bible. Ulric Zell states, in the Cologne Chronicle of 1499, that Gutenberg and Fust printed the Bible in large type like that used in missals. It has been said that this description applies to the 42-line Bible, as its type is as large as that of most missals earlier than 1500, and that the size now called missal type (double pica) was not used in missals until late in the 16th century. This is no doubt true of the smaller missals printed before 1500, some of which are in even much smaller type than the 42-line Bible. But many of the large folio missals, as that printed at Mainz by Peter Schafer in 1483, the Carthusian missal printed at Spires by Peter Drach about 1490, and the Dominican missal printed by Andrea de Torresanis at Venice in 1496 are in as large type as the 36-line Bible. It required scarcely less than such a work, says Madden, to induce Fust to advance such large sums of money. Some other smaller works were printed by the partners, as the Papal Letters of Indulgence of 1454-5, granted 12th April 1451 by Nicolas V., in aid of John II., king of Cyprus, against the Turks, and probably many now lost. Peter Schafer of Gernsheim, between Mainz and Mannheim, who was a copyist in Paris in 1449, and who is called by Fust his servant (famulus), is said by Trithemius to have discovered en easier way of founding characters. Lambinet and others have concluded from this that Schiffer invented the punch. Schiffer himself, in the colophon of the Psalter of 1457, a work which probably was planned and partly printed by Gutenberg, claims only the mode of printing rubrics and coloured capitals. Didot believes that Schiffer discovered the movable mould, and that Gutenberg alludes to this discovery and to Schiffer's youth when he says in the colophon of the Catholicon of 1460 that God reveals to babes what lie hides from the wise. Fust, quite unexpectedly as it seems, and before the profits of the undertaking could be realized, brought a suit against Gutenberg to recover the money he had lent, claiming 2026 florins for principal and interest. He had made a second loan of 800 florins in 1452, but had not paid the 300 florins a year, and, according to Gutenberg, had said that he had no intention of accepting interest. The suit was decided in Fuses favour, 6th November 1455, in the great refectory of the Barefooted Friars of Mainz, when Fust made oath by all the saints that he had borrowed 1550 florins and given them to Gutenberg. Fust removed the portion of the printing materials covered by his mortgage, which did not include the types of the 36-line Bible, to a house belonging to him called Zum Humbreicht, where he carried on printing with the aid of Peter Schiffer, to whom he gave his only daughter Dyna or Christina in marriage about 1465. Their first publication was the Psalter, 14th August 1457, a folio of 350 pages, the first printed book with a complete date, and remarkable for the beauty of the large initials printed each in two colours, red and blue, from types made in two pieces, a method patented in England by Solomon Henry in 1780, and by Sir William Congreve in 1819. The Psalter was reprinted with the same types, 1459 (August 29), 1490, 1502 (Schoffer's last publication), and 1516. Fust and Schiffer's other works are given below.' In-1464 Adolf of Nassau appointed for the church of St Quintin three baumeisters, who were to choose twelve chief parishioners as assistants for life. The first of these " Vorvaren," who were named on May-day 1464, was Jokes Fust, and in 1467 Adam von Hoehheim was chosen instead of Johannes Fust. Fust is said to have gone to Paris in 1466, and to have died of the plague, which raged there in August and September. He certainly was in Paris on 4th July, when he gave Louis de Lavernade, a distinguished gentleman of the province of Fore; then chancellor of the Duc de Bourbon and first president of the parliament of Toulouse, a copy of his second edition of Cicero, as appears from a note in Lavernade's own hand at the end of the book, which is now in the library of Geneva. But Fust probably did not die until 30th October, on which day, probably in 1471, an annual mass was instituted for him by Peter Schiffer and Conrad Henlif in the church of St Victor of Paris, where he was buried.

Fust has been often confounded with the famous magician Dr Johann Faust, no doubt a real person, though the fables gradually gathered round his name have formed a regular mythical saga. Trithemius speaks in 1507 of Magister Georgius Sabellicus, who called himself Faustus Junior. Conradus Metianus Rufus (Conrad Mudt) in 1513 calls him " quidam chiromanticus Georgius Faustus." But Melanchthon (Manlius, Collectanea communium Locorum, Protestantism, where Marlowe's Tragical History of Dr Faustus, founded on the prose history, places him. Many writers have accepted Burr's error (see Ristelhuber, Faust dans l'histoire et la legende, l'aris, 1863, p. 173) ; thus Chaslos (I:todes sur le moyeat (lye, p. 398) calls Fust " magicien k barbe blanche," and Victor Hugo's introduztion to Marlowe's play is based on this error, which, says Heine (Ueber Deutschland), "is widely spread among the magicians found its most formidable means of diffusion in the discovery of printing. This mode, however, is thought itself as opposed to the blind Credo of the Middle Ages."

Authorities. - Schaal), Die Gesehichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, Mainz, 1830-31, 8vo, 3 vols.; De Vinne, The Invention of Printing, New York, 1876, 8vo; Bernard, De l'origine et des debuts de l' Imprimeric en Europe, I'aris, 1853, 8vo, 2 vols.; Madden, Lettres d'un Bibliographe, Versailles, 1868-75, 8vo, 2 vols.; Falkenstein, Gesehichte der Buchdruckerkunst, Leipzig, 1840, 4to ; Van der Linde, The Haarlem Legend, translated by J. H. Hessels, London, 1871, 8vo ; Kohler, Hochverdiente and acs bewahrten Urkunclen wohlbeglaubte Ehrenrettung Johann Gutenbergs, Leipzig, 1743, 4to ; Wurdtwein, Bibliotheca Moguntina, August. Vindelieorum, 1787, 4to ; Schwartz, Primaries quasdam documenta de origins typographice, Altorf, 1740, 8vo ; Schelhorn, De antiquissinut Latinor. Bibtiorunt cditione, Ulune, 1760, 4to; Beitreige rue Gesehichte des Buchhandels, Leipzig, 1864, 4to ; Trithemius, A2znales Hirsaugienses, Typis Monasterii S. Galli, 1690, fol., 2 vole.; Cronica van der Hilliger Stat. van Coellen, Cologne, 1499, fol. ; Joannis, Rerum Moguntiacarton, Fraucofurti ad Mcenum, 1722-27, fol., 3 vols. (P. A. L.)

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