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child abuse children violence

The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS; Washington, DC) is the primary source of national information on child maltreatment known to state child protective services (CPS) agencies. The latest findings from NCANDS are published in Child Maltreatment 2002 (2004). The most recent national incidence study, The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3; 1996), is the single most comprehensive source of information about the incidence of child maltreatment in the United States. The NIS-3 findings are based on data collected not only from CPS but also from community institutions (such as day care centers, schools, and hospitals) and investigating agencies (such as public health departments, police, and courts). Other HHS publications used include The NSDUH Report: Pregnancy and Substance Use (2004), The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act as Amended by The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003 (2004), Child Welfare Outcomes 2001: Annual Report (2004), Major Federal Legislation Concerned with Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption (2003), The NHSDA Report: Children Living with Substance-Abusing or Substance-Dependent Parents (2003), and Children of Color in the Child Welfare System: Perspectives from the Child Welfare Community (2003).

The National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information of the HHS provided an assortment of helpful publications used in the preparation of this book, including The Child Welfare System (2004), Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions (2004), 2003 Child Abuse and Neglect State Statute Series Statutes-at-a-Glance: Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect (2003), 2003 Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Series Ready Reference—Reporting Laws: Drug-Exposed Infants (2003), Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Early Brain Development (2001), and In Harm's Way: Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment (undated).

Other federal government publications used for this book include 2004 Trafficking in Persons Report (U.S. Department of State, 2004), Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature (U.S. Department of Education, 2004), Child Welfare: HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003), and A Nation Online: How Americans Are Expanding Their Use of the Internet (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2002).

Different offices of the U.S. Department of Justice produce publications relating to child maltreatment. The Bureau of Justice Statistics published Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002 (2004), Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2001 (2003), Prisoners in 2002 (2003), Prisoners in 2001 (2002), Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics (2000), and Intimate Partner Violence (2000). The Office for Victims of Crime published the OVC Bulletin: Children at Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs: Helping Meth's Youngest Victims (2003), Internet Crimes against Children (2001), and Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims (2001). The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention published Explanations for the Decline in Child Sexual Abuse Cases (2004), Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics (2002), The Decline in Child Sexual Abuse (2001), and Crimes against Children by Babysitters (2001). The National Institute of Justice published Prosecutors, Kids, and Domestic Violence Cases (2002), An Update on the "Cycle of Violence" (2001), Childhood Victimization: Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology (2000), and Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System (2000).

Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth (Crimes against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, NH, and National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Alexandria, VA, 2000) discussed the findings of the first Youth Internet Safety Survey. Teenage Life Online: The Rise of the Instant-Message Generation and the Internet's Impact on Friendships and Family Relationships by the Pew Internet & American Life Project (Washington, DC, 2001) found that adolescents who have Internet access do communicate with strangers they meet online.

The Family Research Laboratory (FRL) at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, is a major source of studies on domestic violence. Murray A. Straus, David Finkelhor, Linda Meyer Williams, Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, Lisa Jones, Richard K. Ormrod, and many others associated with the laboratory have done some of the most scientifically rigorous research in the field of abuse. Studies released by the FRL investigate all forms of domestic violence, many based on its two major surveys: the National Family Violence Survey (1975) and the National Family Violence Resurvey (1985). Much of the research from these two surveys has been gathered into Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families (Murray A. Straus and Richard J. Gelles; Christine Smith, ed., Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990). Dr. Murray A. Straus is also widely known for his studies on corporal punishment. Several of Dr. Straus's journal articles, his book Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families and Its Effects on Children (2nd. ed, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), and papers presented at meetings on domestic violence in various countries were helpful in the preparation of this book.

Many journals published useful articles on child maltreatment that were used in the preparation of this book. They include the American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, American Journal of Psychiatry, American Psychologist, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, BMC Medicine, British Medical Journal, Child Abuse & Neglect, Child Maltreatment, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Family Forum, Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Journal of Family Violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Journal of Instructional Psychology, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Journal of the American Medical Association, Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Journal of Traumatic Stress, The Lancet, National Institute of Justice Journal, Neuron, New England Law Review, Pediatrics, Psychoneuroendocrinology, and State Legislatures.

Several reports were used in the preparation of this book. They include Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom—A Study of the Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, London, England, 2000), The Nature and Scope of the Problem of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Washington, DC, 2004), A Call to Action: Ending Crimes of Violence Against Children and Adults with Disabilities: A Report to the Nation (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Syracuse, NY, 2003), The Sexual Abuse of Children in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston: A Report by the Attorney General (2003) by Massachusetts Attorney General Thomas F. Reilly, and The Police Chief (Julian Fantino, "Child Pornography on the Internet: New Challenges Require New Ideas," International Association of Chiefs of Police, Alexandria, VA, 2003). Issue papers on foster care and family preservation by the National Coalition for Child Protection Reform (Alexandria, VA) were also used in the preparation of this book.

The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC), in The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2002), brought together a variety of child abuse experts to discuss ongoing controversies in their fields, as well as to challenge long-held assumptions and conclusions. The National Center for Children in Poverty discussed Depression, Substance Abuse, and Domestic Violence: Little Is Known about Co-Occurrence and Combined Effects on Low-Income Families (Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, 2004). The David and Lucile Packard Foundation publication The Future of Children, published by the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs of Princeton University (Princeton, NJ) in collaboration with the Brookings Institute (Washington, DC), provides information on major issues related to the wellbeing of children. Information from The Future of Children: Domestic Violence and Children (1999), The Future of Children: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect (1998), and The Future of Children: Sexual Abuse of Children (1994) was used in this publication.

Helpful books used for this publication include What Parents Need to Know about Sibling Abuse: Breaking the Cycle of Violence, by Vernon R. Wiehe (Springville, UT: Bonneville Books, 2002); Confronting Chronic Neglect: The Education and Training of Health Professionals on Family Violence (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002); The Epidemic of Rape and Child Sexual Abuse in the United States, by Diana E. H. Russell and Rebecca M. Bolen (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2000); Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and Policy (Howard Dubowitz, ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1999); Understanding Family Violence: Treating and Preventing Partner, Child, Sibling, and Elder Abuse, by Vernon R. Wiehe (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1998); Issues in Intimate Violence (Raquel Kennedy Bergen, ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1998); The Book of David: How Preserving Families Can Cost Children's Lives, by Richard J. Gelles (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1996); Wounded Innocents: The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse, by Richard Wexler (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990); and The Secret Trauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women, by Diana E. H. Russell (New York, NY Basic Books, 1986).

Books used for information on recovered memory include Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, vol. 4 (V.S. Ramachandran, ed., San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2002); Resolving Childhood Trauma: A Long-Term Study of Abuse Survivors, by Catherine Cameron (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2000); Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past, by Daniel Schacter (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1996); Betrayal Trauma: The Logic of Forgetting Childhood Abuse, by Jennifer J. Freyd (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996); The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse, by Elizabeth F. Loftus (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1994); Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria, by Richard Ofshe and Ethan Watters (New York, NY: Scribner's, 1994); Unchained Memories: True Stories of Traumatic Memories, Lost and Found, by Lenore Terr (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1994); Once upon a Time: A True Story of Memory, Murder, and the Law, by Harry MacLean (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1993); and The Courage to Heal: A Guide for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse, by Ellen Bass and Laura Davis (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1988).

Thomson Gale thanks the International Labour Organization (ILO) for granting us permission to use graphics from Investing in Every Child: An International Labour Organization Economic Study of the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating Child Labour (Geneva, Switzerland, 2004). The ILO also published Helping Hands or Shackled Lives? Understanding Child Domestic Labour and Responses to It, by June Kane (2004). The Gallup Organization granted permission to use graphics from the Gallup Youth Survey, "One-Third of Teens Know of Abuse among Peers," by Steve Crabtree (2003).

Other international organizations publish literature relating to children. Human Rights Watch and the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers reported on the numbers and status of child soldiers all over the world in Human Rights Watch World Report 2004: Human Rights and Armed Conflict (2004) and Child Soldier Use 2003: A Briefing for the Fourth UN Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict (2004), respectively.

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