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The Pew Charitable Trust established the Pew Internet & American Life Project in 1999. Since then, the Pew Internet Project has conducted dozens of surveys to determine just who in America uses the Internet and how they use it. All of their publications can be found online at America's Online Pursuits (2003), The Internet and Daily Life (2004), and E-mail at Work (2002) paint a general picture of what Americans do online. For information on how various demographic groups employ the Internet, see Internet Use by Region in the United States (2003), Rural Areas and the Internet (2004), and Older Americans and the Internet (2004). The Internet Goes to College (2002), Teenage Life Online (2001), and Let the Games Begin (2003) reveal what young people are doing online. How Americans Get in Touch with Government (2004), Digital Town Hall (2004), The Internet and Democratic Debate (2004), and Untuned Keyboards (2003) all illustrate how influential the Internet has become in politics. With regards to health care and the Internet, Wired for Health (2003), Prescription Drugs Online (2004), and Vital Decisions are all good resources. Spam: How It Is Hurting E-mail and Degrading Life on the Internet (2003) and Fear of Online Crime (2001) expose some of the problems facing the Web. Other useful publications issued by Pew/Internet include Holidays Online (2002), Faith Online (2004), Consumption of Goods and Services in the United States (2003), and How Americans Use Instant Messaging (2004).

The Gallup Organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., provides valuable results from recent polls on such topics as Internet and cell-phone use, e-crime, e-commerce, and entertainment, among others. Reports consulted for this book include "Internet Use: What's Age Got to Do With It?" by Linda Lyons (March 16, 2004), "American E-mailers Increasingly Fed up with Computer Spam" by Frank Newport and Joseph Carroll (May 20, 2003), "Public Favors Ban on Use of Cellular Phones While Driving" by Darren Carlson (July 12, 2001), and "Banking Customers Still Love Bricks and Mortar" by Dennis Jacobe (June 10, 2003).

In addition to Hobbes'Internet Timeline, a number of excellent accounts of Internet history can be found online. Most of these histories are listed on the Internet Society's Web site ( A Brief History of the Internet, also located on the Internet Society's site, was written by some of those people who gave rise to the Internet, including Vint Cerf, the creator of TCP/IP. Public Broadcasting Service's Nerds 2.0.1 ( and Walt Howe's A Brief History of the Internet provide a less technical account of Net history. For a historian's point of view on how the Internet came to be, see History of the Internet, Internet for Historians by Richard T. Griffiths ( and Hardy: The History of the Net by Henry Hardy ( Cyber Geography by Martin Dodge displays map after map of the Internet networks that have spanned the United States since the creation of ARPANET. The Internet2 Web site contains a great deal of information on the Internet2 consortium as well as the future of the Net. An in-depth history of cell phones can be found at along with detailed explanations on how cell phones work.

A number of magazines and Web sites report on the latest developments in technology. In print, Wired magazine, PC World, New Scientist, Popular Science, and Scientific American typically contain a wealth of articles on the most recent trends in electronics and software. On the Web,,,,, and post the latest news in high-tech on a daily basis.

The Federal Communications Commission is the government agency responsible for regulating which devices can use the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The agency also regulates television and radio programming. The FCC Web site ( provides information on radio spectrum allocation, closed captioning, high definition television, the Children's Internet Protection Act, and the V-Chip.

The United States Census Bureau's Statistical Abstracts of the United States ( contains a number of statistics illustrating the impact of technology on American life. These include the percentage of households with computer and Internet access, the amount of time and money Americans spend on various media and media systems (e.g., television and radio), the percentage of public schools with Internet access, and the number of Americans with credit card and debit card accounts. E-Stats (, also produced by the Census Bureau, provides financial statistics on e-commerce in the United States. The Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA), the agency that oversees the Census Bureau, independently compiles reports on Internet usage as well as the impact of high-tech on the economy. The ESA's Digital Economy delves into how high technology has transformed the American economy since the 1980s.

The Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's) identity theft Web site ( houses a number of reports and informational brochures on identity theft and Internet fraud. Publications consulted for this book include Federal Trade Commission—Identity Theft Survey Report (2003), ID Theft—What's It All About (2003), National and State Trends in Fraud and Identity Theft (2003), and the Federal Trade Commission Overview of the Identity Theft Program (2003). The U.S. Department of Justice maintains a Web site on cybercrime ( rife with reports on identity theft and Internet fraud. The site also includes several reports on intellectual property theft, including the Report of the Department of Justice Task Force on Intellectual Property (2004).

The Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center (CERT/CC) at Carnegie Mellon University monitors and responds to major threats to the Internet such as large-scale hacking incidents and virus attacks. The CERT/CC home page ( provides useful information on the incidents reported and vulnerabilities found within the Net. Each year CERT/CC, in conjunction with CSO magazine and the U.S. Secret Service, publishes the E-Crime Watch Survey, which outlines the e-crime incidents reported each year by hundreds of businesses, organizations, and government agencies. These crimes include anything from Internet fraud to hacking incidents to viruses. A similar report entitled CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey is issued by the Computer Security Institute ( and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ICSA Labs (, a division of TruSecure Corporation, releases the Computer Virus Prevalence Survey each year, detailing virus activity among large corporations. The Technical Support Working Group Web site (, the Department of Homeland Security Web site (, and the USCERT Web site ( all contain reports on how the government is using high-tech to combat threats to national security.

To learn more about how national elections are conducted and information on optical scan and digital recording electronic voting machines, visit the Federal Election Commission Web site ( The Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, located within the U.S. Department of Transportation, contains reports on 511 deployment and operations ( The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) scores for many of the federal government's most popular sites can be found at The Office of Management and Budget e-government Web site provides information on President George W. Bush's egovernment initiatives as well as the E-Government Act of 2003. Reports available on this site include the FY 2003 Report to Congress on Implementation of the E-Government Act (2004) and Implementing the President's Management Agenda for E-Government (2003). The 1998 Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA), the predecessor to the E-Government Act, required government agencies to render all their forms in electronic format. In 2000 the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) assessed the success of the GPEA in their report Electronic Government: Government Paperwork Elimination Act Presents Challenges for Agencies.

In 2004 the GAO released a report on Internet pharmacies entitled Internet Pharmacies: Some Pose Safety Risks for Consumers. The report outlines some of the problems GAO agents encountered when they ordered drugs from Internet pharmacies. The National Institutes of Health's MedlinePlus Web site ( contains accurate and valuable information on a myriad of diseases and drugs. The Medical Library Association's Web site ( lists the ten most useful medical Web sites on the Net. The Centers for Disease Control Web site ( reports on how researchers are employing the Internet, GPS systems, and other high-tech equipment to analyze the risks associated with major diseases.

The National Center for Education Statistics ( has released a number of reports detailing the use of computers and the Internet in the classroom. The two reports discussed in this book are Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994–2002 and Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: 2000–2001. The Center for Academic Integrity ( documents and addresses the growing problem of cheating in the classroom.

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