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Plants - Plant Taxonomy And Categorization

name common var none

Taxonomy of plant species can be very complicated and is plagued by disagreements among scientists. Historically, plants were categorized by morphology—physical characteristics, such as shape or color of their leaves, fruit, bark, etc. During the 1960s a new classification scheme emerged that groups plants based on their evolutionary similarities—for example, their chemical properties and reproductive mechanisms. This taxonomy is part of the broader science known as phylogenetic systematics, which studies the evolutionary relationships between living organisms. In the future the systematics approach is expected to be used to classify all life forms.

In general, plants are assigned to the same taxonomic levels used to classify animals. This hierarchical structure includes kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Beneath the species level, plants can be classified as to subspecies, just as in animal taxonomy. There is an additional classification for plants at this level called variety (abbreviated as "var."). Varieties are subgroups with unique differences between them. For example, the invasive species known as kudzu has the scientific name Pueraria montana. There are two FIGURE 11.2 Number of plants listed under the Endangered Species Act, 1980–2005 Adapted from"Endangered," in Threatened and Endangered Spcies System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006, http://www.fws.gov/endangered/stats/cy%20count_2005.pdf (accessed February 1, 2006) and "Threatened," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006, http://www.fws.gov/endangered/stats/cy%20count_2005.pdf (accessed February 1, 2006)varieties—Pueraria montana var. lobata and Pueraria montana var. montana. The lobata variety is commonly found in the United States, while the montana variety is not. Note that variety names are not italicized.

Plant taxonomy also includes additional taxa (groups) between kingdom and phylum called subkingdom, superdivision, and division that distinguish between broad categories of plants. The subkingdom level distinguishes between vascular and nonvascular plants. Within vascular plants, there are two superdivisions—seed plants and seedless plants. Seed plants are divided into various divisions, the largest of which is flowering plants.

The categories used by the FWS in Table 11.1 to categorize endangered and threatened plants are division levels or similar groupings.

Conifers and Cycads

Conifers are cone-bearing, woody plants. Most are trees; only a few species are shrubs. Common tree types include pine, cedar, fir, spruce, redwood, and cypress. As shown in Table 11.1, there are only two conifers listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Santa Cruz cypress (Cupressus abramsiana) and gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana) are found only in Southern California. Both species are imperiled because they have

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Conifers & cycads
Cupressus abramsiana Cypress, Santa Cruz E 9/26/98 F
Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana Cypress, gowen T 12/20/04 F
Torreya taxifolia Torreya, Florida E 9/9/86 F
Ferns & allies
Adenophorus periens Fern, pendant kihi E 7/10/99 F
Adiantum vivesii No common name E 1/17/95 F
Asplenium fragile var. insulare No common name E 4/10/98 F
Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum Fern, American hart's-tongue T 9/15/93 F
Ctenitis squamigera Pauoa E 4/10/98 F
Cyathea dryopteroides Fern, elfin tree E 1/31/91 F
Diellia erecta Diellia, asplenium-leaved E 7/10/99 F
Diellia falcata No common name E 8/12/95 F
Diellia pallida No common name E 9/20/95 F
Diellia unisora No common name E 8/12/95 F
Diplazium molokaiense No common name E 4/10/98 F
Elaphoglossum serpens No common name E 1/17/95 F
Huperzia mannii Wawaˋeiole E 7/29/97 F
Isoetes louisianensis Quillwort, Louisiana E 9/30/96 F
Isoetes melanospora Quillwort, black spored E 7/7/93 F
Isoetes tegetiformans Quillwort, mat-forming E 7/7/93 F
Lycopodium (=phlegmariurus) nutans Wawaeìole E 8/10/98 F
Marsilea villosa Ihiˋihi E 4/18/96 F
Polystichum aleuticum Fern, Aleutian shield E 9/30/92 F
Polystichum calderonense No common name E 1/17/95 F
Pteris lidgatei No common name E 4/10/98 F
Tectaria estremerana No common name E 1/17/95 F
Thelypteris inabonensis No common name E 1/17/95 F
Thelypteris pilosa var. alabamensis Fern, Alabama streak-sorus T 10/25/96 F
Thelypteris verecunda No common name E 1/17/95 F
Thelypteris yaucoensis No common name E 1/17/95 F
Lichens
Cladonia perforata Cladonia, Florida perforate E 5/18/99 F
Gymnoderma lineare Lichen, rock gnome E 9/30/97 F
Flowering plants
Abronia macrocarpa Sand-verbena, large-fruited E 9/30/92 F
Abutilon eremitopetalum No common name E 9/29/95 F
Abutilon menziesii Koˋoloaˋula E 9/29/95 F
Abutilon sandwicense No common name E 8/12/95 F
Acaena exigua Liliwai E 7/29/97 F
Acanthomintha ilicifolia Thornmint, San Diego T None
Acanthomintha obovata ssp. duttonii Thornmint, San Mateo E 9/30/98 F
Achyranthes mutica No common name E 7/10/99 F
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata Chaff-flower, round-leaved E 10/5/93 D
Aconitum noveboracense Monkshood, northern wild T 9/23/83 F
Aeschynomene virginica Joint-vetch, sensitive T 9/29/95 F
Agalinis acuta Gerardia, sandplain E 9/20/89 F
Agave arizonica Agave, Arizona E None
Alectryon macrococcus Mahoe E 7/29/97 F
Allium munzii Onion, Munz's E None
Alopecurus aequalis var. sonomensis Alopecurus, Sonoma E None
Alsinidendron lychnoides Kuawawaenohu E 8/23/98 F
Alsinidendron obovatum No common name E 8/12/95 F
Alsinidendron trinerve No common name E 8/12/95 F
Alsinidendron viscosum No common name E 8/23/98 F
Amaranthus brownii No common name E 3/31/98 F
Amaranthus pumilus Amaranth, seabeach T 11/12/96 F
Ambrosia cheiranthifolia Ambrosia, south Texas E None
Ambrosia pumila Ambrosia, San Diego E None
Amorpha crenulata Lead-plant, Crenulate E 5/18/99 F
Amphianthus pusillus Amphianthus, little T 7/7/93 F
Amsinckia grandiflora Fiddleneck, large-flowered E 9/29/97 F
Amsonia kearneyana Blue-star, Kearney's E 5/24/93 F
Ancistrocactus tobuschii Cactus, Tobusch fishhook E 3/18/87 F
Apios priceana Potato-bean, Price's T 2/10/93 F
Arabis hoffmannii Rock-cress, Hoffmann's E 9/26/2000 F
Arabis mcdonaldiana Rock-cress, McDonald's E 2/28/84 F
Arabis perstellata Rock-cress, Braun's E 7/22/97 F
Arabis serotina Rock-cress, shale barren E 8/15/91 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTIONUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Arctomecon humilis Bear-poppy, dwarf E 12/31/85 F
Arctostaphylos confertiflora Manzanita, Santa Rosa Island E 9/26/2000 F
Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia Manzanita, Del Mar E None
Arctostaphylos hookeri var. ravenii Manzanita, Presidio E 10/6/03 F
Arctostaphylos morroensis Manzanita, Morro T 9/28/98 F
Arctostaphylos myrtifolia Manzanita, Ione T None
Arctostaphylos pallida Manzanita, pallid T 4/7/03 D
Arenaria cumberlandensis Sandwort, Cumberland E 6/20/96 F
Arenaria paludicola Sandwort, Marsh E 9/28/98 F
Arenaria ursina Sandwort, Bear Valley T None
Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta Poppy, Sacramento prickly E 8/31/94 F
Argyroxiphium kauense Silversword, Mauna Loa (=Kaˋu) E 11/21/95 F
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum ˋAhinahina T 7/29/97 F
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense ˋAhinahina E 9/30/93 F
Aristida chaseae No common name E 7/31/95 F
Aristida portoricensis Pelos del diablo E 5/16/94 F
Asclepias meadii Milkweed, Mead's T 9/22/03 F
Asclepias welshii Milkweed, Welsh's T 9/30/92 F
Asimina tetramera Pawpaw, four-petal E 5/18/99 F
Astragalus albens Milk-vetch, Cushenbury E 9/30/97 D
Astragalus ampullarioides Milk-vetch, Shivwitz E None
Astragalus applegatei Milk-vetch, Applegate's E 4/10/98 F
Astragalus bibullatus Ground-plum, Guthrie's (=Pyne's) E None
Astragalus brauntonii Milk-vetch, Braunton's E 9/30/99 F
Astragalus clarianus Milk-vetch, Clara Hunt's E None
Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax Milk-vetch, Sentry E 9/14/04 D
Astragalus desereticus Milk-vetch, Deseret T None
Astragalus holmgreniorum Milk-vetch, Holmgren E None
Astragalus humillimus Milk-vetch, Mancos E 12/20/89 F
Astragalus jaegerianus Milk-vetch, Lane Mountain E None
Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae Milk-vetch, Coachella Valley E None
Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis Milk-vetch, Fish Slough T 9/30/98 F
Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii Milk-vetch, Peirson's T None
Astragalus montii Milk-vetch, heliotrope T 9/27/95 D
Astragalus osterhoutii Milk-vetch, Osterhout E 9/30/92 F
Astragalus phoenix Milk-vetch, Ash meadows T 9/28/90 F
Astragalus pycnostachyus var. lanosissimus Milk-vetch, Ventura Marsh E None
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi Milk-vetch, Jesup's E 11/21/89 F
Astragalus tener var. titi Milk-vetch, coastal dunes E 12/20/04 F
Astragalus tricarinatus Milk-vetch, triple-ribbed E None
Astrophytum asterias Cactus, star E 11/6/03 F
Atriplex coronata var. notatior Crownscale, San Jacinto Valley E None
Auerodendron pauciflorum No common name E 9/29/97 F
Ayenia limitaris Ayenia, Texas E None
Baccharis vanessae Baccharis, Encinitas T None
Banara vanderbiltii Palo de ramon E 3/15/91 F
Baptisia arachnifera Rattleweed, hairy E 3/19/84 F
Berberis nevinii Barberry, Nevin's E None
Berberis pinnata ssp. insularis Barberry, island E 9/26/2000 F
Betula uber Birch, Virginia round-leaf T 9/24/90 RF(2)
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha Koˋokoˋolau E 7/29/97 F
Bidens wiebkei Koˋokoˋolau E 9/26/96 F
Blennosperma bakeri Sunshine, Sonoma E None
Boltonia decurrens Aster, decurrent false T 9/28/90 F
Bonamia grandiflora Bonamia, Florida T 6/20/96 RF(1)
Bonamia menziesii No common name E 7/10/99 F
Brighamia insignis Olulu E 9/20/95 F
Brighamia rockii Puaˋala E 9/26/96 F
Brodiaea filifolia Brodiaea, thread-leaved T None
Brodiaea pallida Brodiaea, Chinese Camp T 9/16/05 U
Buxus vahlii Boxwood, Vahl's E 4/28/87 F
Caesalpinia kavaiense Uhiuhi E 5/6/94 F
Callicarpa ampla Capa rosa E 7/31/95 F
Callirhoe scabriuscula Poppy-mallow, Texas E 3/29/85 F
Calochortus tiburonensis Mariposa lily, Tiburon T 9/30/98 F
Calyptranthes thomasiana No common name E 9/30/97 F
Calyptridium pulchellum Pussypaws, Mariposa T 9/16/05 U
Calyptronoma rivalis Manaca, palma de T 6/25/92 F
Calystegia stebbinsii Morning-glory, Stebbins' E 8/30/02 F
Camissonia benitensis Evening-primrose, San Benito T 2/2/99 D
Campanula robinsiae Bellflower, Brooksville E 6/20/94 F
Canavalia molokaiensis ˋAwikiwiki E 9/26/96 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTIONUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Cardamine micranthera Bittercress, small-anthered E 7/10/91 F
Carex albida Sedge, white E None
Carex lutea Sedge, golden E None
Carex specuicola Sedge, Navajo T 9/24/87 F
Castilleja affinis ssp. neglecta Paintbrush, Tiburon E 9/30/98 F
Castilleja campestris ssp. succulenta Owl's-clover, fleshy T 3/7/06 F
Castilleja cinerea Paintbrush, ash-grey T None
Castilleja grisea Indian paintbrush, San Clemente Island E 1/26/84 F
Castilleja levisecta Paintbrush, golden T 8/23/2000 F
Castilleja mollis Paintbrush, soft-leaved E 9/26/2000 F
Catesbaea melanocarpa No common name E 8/18/05 F
Caulanthus californicus Jewelflower, California E 9/30/98 F
Ceanothus ferrisae Ceanothus, coyote E 9/30/98 F
Ceanothus ophiochilus Ceanothus, Vail Lake T None
Ceanothus roderickii Ceanothus, Pine Hill E 8/30/02 F
Cenchrus agrimonioides Kamanomano E 7/10/99 F
Centaurium namophilum Centaury, spring-loving T 9/28/90 F
Centaurium sebaeoides Awiwi E 8/12/95 F
Cercocarpus traskiae Mountain-mahogany, Catalina Island E 9/16/05 U
Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans Prickly-apple, fragrant E 5/18/99 F
Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilis No common name E 5/12/94 F
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana ˋAkoko E 8/12/95 F
Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. deltoidea Spurge, deltoid E 5/18/99 F
Chamaesyce deppeana ˋAkoko E 8/10/98 F
Chamaesyce garberi Spurge, Garber's T 5/18/99 F
Chamaesyce halemanui No common name E 9/20/95 F
Chamaesyce herbstii ˋAkoko E 8/10/98 F
Chamaesyce hooveri Spurge, Hoover's T 3/7/06 F
Chamaesyce kuwaleana ˋAkoko E 8/12/95 F
Chamaesyce rockii ˋAkoko E 8/10/98 F
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana ˋAkoko, Ewa Plains E 10/5/93 D
Chionanthus pygmaeus Fringe-tree, pygmy E 5/18/99 F
Chlorogalum purpureum Amole, purple T None
Chorizanthe howellii Spineflower, Howell's E 9/29/98 F
Chorizanthe orcuttiana Spineflower, Orcutt's E None
Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana Spineflower, Ben Lomond E 9/28/98 F
Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens Spineflower, Monterey T 9/29/98 F
Chorizanthe robusta (incl. vars. robusta and hartwegii) Spineflower, Robust (incl. Scotts Valley) E 9/28/98 F
Chorizanthe valida Spineflower, Sonoma E 9/29/98 F
Chrysopsis floridana Aster, Florida golden E 8/29/88 F
Cirsium fontinale var. fontinale Thistle, fountain E 9/30/98 F
Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense Thistle, Chorro Creek bog E 9/28/98 F
Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum Thistle, Suisun E None
Cirsium loncholepis Thistle, La Graciosa E None
Cirsium pitcheri Thistle, Pitcher's T 9/20/02 F
Cirsium vinaceum Thistle, Sacramento Mountains T 9/27/93 F
Clarkia franciscana Clarkia, Presidio E 9/30/98 F
Clarkia imbricata Clarkia, Vine Hill E None
Clarkia speciosa ssp. immaculata Clarkia, Pismo E 9/28/98 F
Clarkia springvillensis Clarkia, Springville T 9/16/05 U
Clematis morefieldii Leather flower, Morefield's E 5/3/94 F
Clematis socialis Leather flower, Alabama E 12/27/89 F
Clermontia drepanomorpha ˋOha wai E 5/11/98 F
Clermontia lindseyana ˋOha wai E 9/26/96 F
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes ˋOha wai E 9/26/96 F
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis ˋOha wai E 7/29/97 F
Clermontia peleana ˋOha wai E 9/26/96 F
Clermontia pyrularia ˋOha wai E 9/26/96 F
Clermontia samuelii ˋOha wai E 9/19/02 F
Clitoria fragrans Pigeon wings T 5/18/99 F
Colubrina oppositifolia Kauila E 9/26/96 F
Conradina brevifolia Rosemary, short-leaved E 5/18/99 F
Conradina etonia Rosemary, Etonia E 9/27/94 F
Conradina glabra Rosemary, Apalachicola E 9/27/94 F
Conradina verticillata Rosemary, Cumberland T 7/12/96 F
Cordia bellonis No common name E 10/1/99 F
Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus Bird's-beak, salt marsh E 12/6/85 F
Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis Bird's-beak, soft E None
Cordylanthus palmatus Bird's beak, palmate-bracted E 9/30/98 F
Cordylanthus tenuis ssp. capillaris Bird's-beak, Pennell's E 9/30/98 F
Cornutia obovata Palo de nigua E 8/7/92 F
Coryphantha minima Cactus, Nellie cory E 9/20/84 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Coryphantha ramillosa Cory cactus, bunched T 4/13/90 U
Coryphantha robbinsorum Cactus, Cochise pincushion T 9/27/93 F
Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina Cactus, Pima pineapple E 9/26/05 U
Coryphantha sneedii var. leei Cactus, Lee pincushion T 3/21/86 F
Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii Cactus, Sneed pincushion E 3/21/86 F
Cranichis ricartii No common name E 7/15/96 F
Crescentia portoricensis Higuero de sierra E 9/23/91 F
Crotalaria avonensis Harebells, Avon Park E 5/18/99 F
Cryptantha crassipes Cat's-eye, Terlingua Creek E 4/5/94 F
Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp. okeechobeensis Gourd, Okeechobee E 5/18/99 F
Cyanea (=rollandia) crispa No common name E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea acuminata Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea asarifolia Haha E 9/20/95 F
Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis Haha E 9/19/02 F
Cyanea dunbarii Haha E 5/20/98 F
Cyanea glabra Haha E 9/19/02 F
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana Haha E 7/10/99 F
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae Haha E 8/12/95 F
Cyanea hamatiflora carlsonii Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora Haha E 9/19/02 F
Cyanea humboldtiana Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea koolauensis Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea lobata Haha E 7/29/97 F
Cyanea longiflora Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii Haha E 9/29/95 F
Cyanea mannii Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea mceldowneyi Haha E 7/29/97 F
Cyanea pinnatifida Haha E 8/12/95 F
Cyanea platyphylla Haha E 5/11/98 F
Cyanea procera Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea recta Haha T 8/23/98 F
Cyanea remyi Haha E 8/23/98 F
Cyanea shipmannii Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea stictophylla Haha E 9/26/96 F
Cyanea st-johnii Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea superba Haha E 8/12/95 F
Cyanea truncata Haha E 8/10/98 F
Cyanea undulata Haha E 5/31/94 F
Cycladenia jonesii (=humilis) Cycladenia, Jones T None
Cyperus trachysanthos Puˋukaˋa E 7/10/99 F
Cyrtandra crenata Haìwale E 8/10/98 F
Cyrtandra cyaneoides Mapele E 8/23/98 F
Cyrtandra dentata Haˋiwale E 8/10/98 F
Cyrtandra giffardii Haˋiwale E 9/26/96 F
Cyrtandra limahuliensis Haˋiwale T 9/20/95 F
Cyrtandra munroi Haˋiwale E 9/29/95 F
Cyrtandra polyantha Haˋiwale E 8/10/98 F
Cyrtandra subumbellata Haˋiwale E 8/10/98 F
Cyrtandra tintinnabula Haˋiwale E 9/26/96 F
Cyrtandra viridiflora Haˋiwale E 8/10/98 F
Dalea foliosa Prairie-clover, leafy E 9/30/96 F
Daphnopsis hellerana No common name E 8/7/92 F
Deeringothamnus pulchellus Pawpaw, beautiful E 5/18/99 F
Deeringothamnus rugelii Pawpaw, Rugel's E 4/5/88 F
Deinandra (=hemizonia) conjugens Tarplant, Otay T 12/28/04 F
Deinandra increscens ssp. villosa Tarplant, Gaviota E None
Delissea rhytidosperma No common name E 9/20/95 F
Delissea rivularis Oha E 8/23/98 F
Delissea subcordata Oha E 8/10/98 F
Delissea undulata No common name E 9/26/96 F
Delphinium bakeri Larkspur, Baker's E None
Delphinium luteum Larkspur, yellow E None
Delphinium variegatum ssp. kinkiense Larkspur, San Clemente Island E 1/26/84 F
Dicerandra christmanii Mint, Garrett's E 5/18/99 F
Dicerandra cornutissima Mint, longspurred E 7/1/87 F
Dicerandra frutescens Mint, scrub E 5/18/99 F
Dicerandra immaculata Mint, Lakela's E 5/18/99 F
Dodecahema leptoceras Spineflower, slender-horned E None
Dubautia herbstobatae Naˋenaˋe E 8/12/95 F
Dubautia latifolia Naˋenaˋe E 9/20/95 F
Dubautia pauciflorula Naˋenaˋe E 5/31/94 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis Naènaè E 9/19/02 F
Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva Dudleya, Conejo T 9/30/99 F
Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens Dudleya, marcescent T 9/30/99 F
Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia Dudleyea, Santa Monica Mountains T 9/30/99 F
Dudleya nesiotica Dudleya, Santa Cruz Island T 9/26/2000 F
Dudleya setchellii Dudleya, Santa Clara Valley E 9/30/98 F
Dudleya stolonifera Liveforever, Laguna Beach T None
Dudleya traskiae Liveforever, Santa Barbara Island E 6/27/85 F
Dudleya verityi Dudleya, Verity's T 9/30/99 F
Echinacea laevigata Coneflower, smooth E 4/18/95 F
Echinacea tennesseensis Coneflower, Tennessee purple E 11/14/89 RF(1)
Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii Cactus, Nichol's Turk's head E 4/14/86 F
Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis Cactus, Chisos Mountain hedgehog T 12/8/93 F
Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri Cactus, Kuenzler hedgehog E 3/28/85 F
Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii Cactus, black lace E 3/18/87 F
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus Cactus, Arizona hedgehog E 9/30/84 TD
Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisii Pitaya, Davis' green E 9/20/84 F
Echinomastus mariposensis Cactus, Lloyd's Mariposa T 4/13/90 F
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata Sunray, Ash Meadows T 9/28/90 F
Eragrostis fosbergii Love grass, Fosberg's E 8/10/98 F
Eremalche kernensis Mallow, Kern E 9/30/98 F
Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum Woolly-star, Santa Ana River E None
Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens Daisy, Willamette E 9/16/05 U
Erigeron maguirei Daisy, Maguire T 8/15/95 F
Erigeron parishii Daisy, Parish's T 9/30/97 D
Erigeron rhizomatus Fleabane, Zuni T 9/30/88 F
Eriodictyon altissimum Mountain balm, Indian Knob E 9/28/98 F
Eriodictyon capitatum Yerba santa, Lompoc E None
Eriogonum apricum (including var. prostratum) Buckwheat, Ione (incl. Irish Hill) E None
Eriogonum gypsophilum Wild-buckwheat, gypsum T 3/30/84 F
Eriogonum kennedyi var. austromontanum Wild-buckwheat, southern mountain T None
Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium Buckwheat, scrub T 6/20/96 RF(1)
Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum Buckwheat, cushenbury E 9/30/97 D
Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsiae Buckwheat, steamboat E 9/20/95 F
Eriogonum pelinophilum Wild-buckwheat, clay-loving E 11/10/88 F
Eriophyllum latilobum Sunflower, San Mateo woolly E 9/30/98 F
Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii Button-celery, San Diego E 9/3/98 F
Eryngium constancei Thistle, Loch Lomond coyote E 3/7/06 F
Eryngium cuneifolium Snakeroot E 5/18/99 F
Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum Wallflower, Contra Costa E 4/25/84 RF(1)
Erysimum menziesii Wallflower, Menzies' E 9/29/98 F
Erysimum teretifolium Wallflower, Ben Lomond E 9/28/98 F
Erythronium propullans Lily, Minnesota dwarf trout E 12/16/87 F
Eugenia haematocarpa Uvillo E 9/11/98 F
Eugenia koolauensis Nioi E 8/10/98 F
Eugenia woodburyana No common name E 10/6/98 F
Euphorbia haeleeleana ˋAkoko E 7/10/99 F
Euphorbia telephioides Spurge, telephus T 6/22/94 F
Eutrema penlandii Mustard, Penland alpine fen T None
Exocarpos luteolus Heau E 9/20/95 F
Flueggea neowawraea Mehamehame E 7/10/99 F
Frankenia johnstonii Frankenia, Johnston's E 5/24/88 F
Fremontodendron californicum ssp. decumbens Flannelbush, Pine Hill E 8/30/02 F
Fremontodendron mexicanum Flannelbush, Mexican E None
Fritillaria gentneri Fritillary, Gentner's E 8/28/03 F
Gahnia lanaiensis No common name E 9/29/95 F
Galactia smallii Milkpea, Small's E 5/18/99 F
Galium buxifolium Bedstraw, island E 9/26/2000 F
Galium californicum ssp. sierrae Bedstraw, El Dorado E 8/30/02 F
Gardenia brighamii Gardenia (=Naˋu), Hawaiian E 9/30/93 F
Gardenia mannii Nanu E 8/10/98 F
Gaura neomexicana var. coloradensis Butterfly plant, Colorado T None
Geocarpon minimum No common name T 7/26/93 F
Geranium arboreum Geranium, Hawaiian red-flowered E 7/29/97 F
Geranium multiflorum Nohoanu E 7/29/97 F
Gesneria pauciflora No common name T 10/6/98 F
Geum radiatum Avens, spreading E 4/28/93 F
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria Gilia, Monterey E 9/29/98 F
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. hoffmannii Gilia, Hoffmann's slender-flowered E 9/26/2000 F
Goetzea elegans Goetzea, beautiful E 4/28/87 F
Gouania hillebrandii No common name E 7/16/90 F
Gouania meyenii No common name E 8/12/95 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Gouania vitifolia No common name E 8/12/95 F
Grindelia fraxino-pratensis Gumplant, Ash Meadows T 9/28/90 F
Hackelia venusta Stickseed, showy E 9/21/05 U
Halophila johnsonii Seagrass, Johnson's T 10/4/02 F
Haplostachys haplostachya Honohono E 9/20/93 D
Harperocallis flava Beauty, Harper's E 9/14/83 F
Harrisia portoricensis Chumbo, Higo T 11/12/96 F
Hedeoma todsenii Pennyroyal, Todsen's E 1/31/01 RF(2)
Hedyotis cookiana Awiwi E 9/20/95 F
Hedyotis coriacea Kioˋele E 7/29/97 F
Hedyotis degeneri No common name E 8/12/95 F
Hedyotis mannii Pilo E 9/26/96 F
Hedyotis parvula No common name E 8/12/95 F
Hedyotis purpurea var. montana Bluet, Roan Mountain E 5/13/96 F
Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi Kopa E 9/19/02 F
Hedyotis st.-johnii Hedyotis, Na Pali beach E 9/20/95 F
Helenium virginicum Sneezeweed, Virginia T 10/2/2000 D
Helianthemum greenei Rush-rose, island T 9/26/2000 F
Helianthus paradoxus Sunflower, Pecos (=puzzle, =paradox) T 9/15/05 F
Helianthus schweinitzii Sunflower, Schweinitz's E 4/22/94 F
Helonias bullata Pink, swamp T 9/30/91 F
Hesperolinon congestum Dwarf-flax, Marin T 9/30/98 F
Hesperomannia arborescens No common name E 8/10/98 F
Hesperomannia arbuscula No common name E 8/12/95 F
Hesperomannia lydgatei No common name E 5/31/94 F
Hexastylis naniflora Heartleaf, dwarf-flowered T null U
Hibiscadelphus distans Kauai hau kuahiwi E 6/5/96 F
Hibiscadelphus giffardianus Hau kuahiwi E 5/11/98 F
Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis Hau kuahiwi E 5/11/|98 F
Hibiscadelphus woodii Hau kuahiwi E 8/23/98 F
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus Kokiˋo keˋokeˋo E 9/26/96 F
Hibiscus brackenridgei Maˋo hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus) E 7/10/99 F
Hibiscus clayi Hibiscus, Clay's E 9/20/95 F
Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae Kokiò keòkeò E 8/23/98 F
Hoffmannseggia tenella Rush-pea, slender E 9/13/88 F
Holocarpha macradenia Tarplant, Santa Cruz T None
Howellia aquatilis Howellia, water T 9/2496 D
Hudsonia montana Heather, mountain golden T 9/14/83 F
Hymenoxys herbacea Daisy, lakeside T 9/19/90 F
Hymenoxys texana Dawn-flower, Texas prairie E 4/13/90 F
Hypericum cumulicola Hypericum, highlands scrub E 5/18/99 F
Ilex cookii Holly, Cook's E 1/31/91 F
Ilex sintenisii No common name E 7/31/95 F
Iliamna corei Mallow, Peter's Mountain E 9/28/90 F
Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus Ipomopsis, Holy Ghost E 9/26/02 F
Iris lacustris Iris, dwarf lake T None
Ischaemum byrone Ischaemum, Hilo E 9/26/96 F
Isodendrion hosakae Aupaka E 5/23/94 F
Isodendrion laurifolium Aupaka E 7/10/99 F
Isodendrion longifolium Aupaka T 7/10/99 F
Isodendrion pyrifolium Kula wahine noho E 9/26/96 F
Isotria medeoloides Pogonia, small whorled T 11/13/92 RF(1)
Ivesia kingii var. eremica Ivesia, Ash Meadows T 9/28/90 F
Jacquemontia reclinata Jacquemontia, beach E 5/18/99 F
Juglans jamaicensis Walnut (=Nogal), West Indian E 12/9/99 F
Justicia cooleyi Water-willow, Cooley's E 6/20/94 F
Kanaloa kahoolawensis Kohe malama malama o kanaloa E 9/1902 F
Kokia cookei Kokiˋo, Cooke's E 5/27/98 F
Kokia drynarioides Kokiˋo E 5/6/94 F
Kokia kauaiensis Kokiˋo E 8/23/98 F
Labordia cyrtandrae Kamakahala E 8/10/98 F
Labordia lydgatei Kamakahala E 5/31/94 F
Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis Kamakahala E 9/19/02 F
Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis Kamakahala E 8/23/98 F
Labordia triflora Kamakahala E 9/19/02 F
Lasthenia burkei Goldfields, Burke's E None
Lasthenia conjugens Goldfields, Contra Costa E 3/7/06 F
Layia carnosa Layia, beach E 9/29/98 F
Lepanthes eltoroensis No common name E 7/15/96 F
Lepidium arbuscula ˋAnaunau E 8/10/98 F
Lepidium barnebyanum Ridge-cress, Barneby E 7/23/93 F
Leptocereus grantianus No common name E 7/26/95 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Lespedeza leptostachya Bush-clover, prairie T 10/6/88 F
Lesquerella congesta Bladderpod, Dudley Bluffs T 8/13/93 F
Lesquerella filiformis Bladderpod, Missouri T 4/7/88 F
Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardina Bladderpod, San Bernardino Mountains E 9/30/97 D
Lesquerella lyrata Bladderpod, lyrate T 10/17/96 F
Lesquerella pallida Bladderpod, white E 10/16/92 F
Lesquerella perforata Bladderpod, Spring Creek E 9/12/05 D
Lesquerella thamnophila Bladderpod, Zapata E 8/25/04 F
Lesquerella tumulosa Bladderpod, kodachrome E None
Lessingia germanorum (=l.g. var. germanorum) Lessingia, San Francisco E 10/6/03 F
Liatris helleri Blazingstar, Heller's T 1/28/2000 RF(1)
Liatris ohlingerae Blazingstar, scrub E 5/18/99 F
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva Water-umbel, Huachuca E None
Lilium occidentale Lily, Western E 3/31/98 F
Lilium pardalinum ssp. pitkinense Lily, Pitkin Marsh E None
Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica Meadowfoam, Butte County E 3/7/06 F
Limnanthes floccosa ssp. grandiflora Meadowfoam, large-flowered woolly E 9/21/05 U
Limnanthes vinculans Meadowfoam, Sebastopol E None
Lindera melissifolia Pondberry E 9/23/93 F
Lipochaeta fauriei Nehe E 9/20/95 F
Lipochaeta kamolensis Nehe E 7/29/97 F
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla Nehe E 8/12/95 F
Lipochaeta micrantha Nehe E 9/20/95 F
Lipochaeta tenuifolia Nehe E 8/12/95 F
Lipochaeta venosa No common name E 5/23/94 F
Lipochaeta waimeaensis Nehe E 9/20/95 F
Lithophragma maximum Woodland-star, San Clemente Island E 9/16/05 U
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis No common name E 8/10/98 F
Lobelia monostachya No common name E 8/10/98 F
Lobelia niihauensis No common name E 8/12/95 F
Lobelia oahuensis No common name E 8/10/98 F
Lomatium bradshawii Desert-parsley, Bradshaw's E 8/13/93 F
Lomatium cookii Lomatium, Cook's E None
Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiae Broom, San Clemente Island E 1/26/84 F
Lupinus aridorum Lupine, scrub E 6/20/96 RF(1)
Lupinus nipomensis Lupine, Nipomo Mesa E None
Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii) Lupine, Kincaid's T 9/16/05 U
Lupinus tidestromii Lupine, clover E 9/29/98 F
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii No common name E 7/31/95 F
Lysimachia asperulaefolia Loosestrife, rough-leaved E 4/19/95 F
Lysimachia filifolia No common name E 9/20/95 F
Lysimachia lydgatei No common name E 7/29/97 F
Lysimachia maxima No common name E 5/20/98 F
Macbridea alba Birds-in-a-nest, white T 6/22/94 F
Malacothamnus clementinus Bush-mallow, San Clemente Island E 1/26/84 F
Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus Bush-mallow, Santa Cruz Island E 9/26/2000 F
Malacothrix indecora Malacothrix, Santa Cruz Island E 9/26/2000 F
Malacothrix squalida Malacothrix, island E 9/26/2000 F
Manihot walkerae Manioc, Walker's E 12/12/93 F
Mariscus fauriei No common name E 9/26/96 F
Mariscus pennatiformis No common name E 7/10/99 F
Marshallia mohrii Button, Mohr's Barbara T 11/26/91 F
Melicope adscendens Alani E 7/29/97 F
Melicope balloui Alani E 7/29/97 F
Melicope haupuensis Alani E 9/20/95 F
Melicope knudsenii Alani E 9/20/95 F
Melicope lydgatei Alani E 8/10/98 F
Melicope mucronulata Alani E 7/29/97 F
Melicope munroi Alani E 9/19/02 F
Melicope ovalis Alani E 7/29/97 F
Melicope pallida Alani E 9/20/95 F
Melicope quadrangularis Alani E 9/20/95 F
Melicope reflexa Alani E 9/26/96 F
Melicope saint-johnii Alani E 8/10/98 F
Melicope zahlbruckneri Alani E 5/11/98 F
Mentzelia leucophylla Blazingstar, Ash Meadows T 9/28/90 F
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis Monkey-flower, Michigan E 9/17/97 F
Mirabilis macfarlanei Four-o'clock, MacFarlane's T 6/30/2000 RF(1)
Mitracarpus maxwelliae No common name E 10/6/98 F
Mitracarpus polycladus No common name E 10/6/98 F
Monardella linoides ssp. viminea Monardella, willowy E None
Monolopia (=Lembertia) congdonii Wooly-threads, San Joaquin E 9/30/98 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Munroidendron racemosum No common name E 9/20/95 F
Myrcia paganii No common name E 9/29/97 F
Myrsine juddii Kolea E 8/10/98 F
Myrsine linearifolia Kolea T 8/23/98 F
Navarretia fossalis Navarretia, spreading T 9/3/98 F
Navarretia leucocephala ssp. pauciflora (=n. pauciflora) Navarretia, few-flowered E 3/7/06 F
Navarretia leucocephala ssp. plieantha Navarretia, many-flowered E 3/7/06 F
Neostapfia colusana Grass, Colusa T 3/7/06 F
Neraudia angulata No common name E 8/12/95 F
Neraudia ovata No common name E 5/11/98 F
Neraudia sericea No common name E 7/10/99 F
Nesogenes rotensis No common name E 9/21/05 U
Nitrophila mohavensis Niterwort, Amargosa E 9/28/90 F
Nolina brittoniana Beargrass, Britton's E 6/20/96 RF(1)
Nothocestrum breviflorum ˋAiea E 9/26/96 F
Nothocestrum peltatum ˋAiea E 9/20/95 F
Nototrichium humile Kulu'i E 8/12/95 F
Ochrosia kilaueaensis Holei E 9/26/96 F
Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis Evening-primrose, Eureka Valley E 12/13/82 F
Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii Evening-primrose, Antioch Dunes E 4/25/84 RF(1)
Opuntia treleasei Cactus, Bakersfield E 9/30/98 F
Orcuttia californica Orcutt grass, California E 9/3/98 F
Orcuttia inaequalis Orcutt grass, San Joaquin T 3/7/06 F
Orcuttia pilosa Orcutt grass, hairy E 3/7/06 F
Orcuttia tenuis Orcutt grass, slender T 3/7/06 F
Orcuttia viscida Orcutt grass, Sacramento E 3/7/06 F
Osmoxylon mariannense No common name E None
Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon Palo de rosa E 9/20/94 F
Oxypolis canbyi Dropwort, Canby's E 4/10/90 F
Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana Oxytheca, cushenbury E 9/30/97 D
Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea Locoweed, Fassett's T 3/29/91 F
Panicum fauriei var. carteri Panicgrass, Carter's E 6/4/94 F
Panicum niihauense Lauˋehu E 7/10/99 F
Paronychia chartacea Whitlow-wort, papery T 5/18/99 F
Parvisedum leiocarpum Stonecrop, Lake County E 3/7/06 F
Pedicularis furbishiae Lousewort, Furbish E 7/2/91 RF(1)
Pediocactus (=echinocactus, =utahia) sileri Cactus, Siler pincushion T 4/14/86 F
Pediocactus bradyi Cactus, Brady pincushion E 3/28/85 F
Pediocactus despainii Cactus, San Rafael E 10/2/95 D
Pediocactus knowltonii Cactus, Knowlton E 3/29/85 F
Pediocactus peeblesianus peeblesianus Cactus, Peebles Navajo E 3/30/84 F
Pediocactus winkleri Cactus, Winkler T 10/2/95 D
Penstemon haydenii Penstemon, blowout E 7/17/92 F
Penstemon penlandii Beardtongue, Penland E 9/30/92 F
Pentachaeta bellidiflora Pentachaeta, white-rayed E 9/30/98 F
Pentachaeta lyonii Pentachaeta, Lyon's E 9/30/99 F
Peperomia wheeleri Peperomia, Wheeler's E 11/26/90 F
Peucedanum sandwicense Makou T 9/20/95 F
Phacelia argillacea Phacelia, clay E 4/12/82 F
Phacelia formosula Phacelia, North Park E 3/21/86 F
Phacelia insularis ssp. insularis Phacelia, island E 9/26/2000 F
Phlox hirsuta Phlox, Yreka E 7/19/04 D
Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis Phlox, Texas trailing E 3/28/95 F
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis No common name E 9/29/95 F
Phyllostegia hirsuta No common name E 8/10/98 F
Phyllostegia kaalaensis No common name E 8/10/98 F
Phyllostegia knudsenii No common name E 8/23/98 F
Phyllostegia mannii No common name E 9/26/96 F
Phyllostegia mollis No common name E 8/12/95 F
Phyllostegia parviflora No common name E 7/10/99 F
Phyllostegia racemosa Kiponapona E 5/11/98 F
Phyllostegia velutina No common name E 5/11/98 F
Phyllostegia waimeae No common name E 9/20/95 F
Phyllostegia warshaueri No common name E 5/11/98 F
Phyllostegia wawrana No common name E 8/23/98 F
Physaria obcordata Twinpod, Dudley Bluffs T 8/13/93 F
Pilosocereus robinii Cactus, Key tree E 5/18/99 F
Pinguicula ionantha Butterwort, Godfrey's T 6/22/94 F
Piperia yadonii Piperia, Yadon's E 12/20/04 F
Pityopsis ruthii Aster, Ruth's golden E 6/11/92 F
Plagiobothrys hirtus Popcornflower, rough E 9/25/03 F
Plagiobothrys strictus Allocarya, Calistoga E None

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Plantago hawaiensis Kuahiwi laukahi E 9/26/96 F
Plantago princeps Kuahiwi laukahi E 7/10/99 F
Platanthera holochila No common name E 7/10/99 F
Platanthera leucophaea Orchid, eastern prairie fringed T 9/29/99 F
Platanthera praeclara Orchid, western prairie fringed T 9/30/96 F
Pleodendron macranthum Chupacallos E 9/11/98 F
Pleomele hawaiiensis Hala pepe E 5/11/98 F
Poa atropurpurea Bluegrass, San Bernardino E 9/16/05 U
Poa mannii Bluegrass, Mann's E 9/20/95 F
Poa napensis Bluegrass, Napa E None
Poa sandvicensis Bluegrass, Hawaiian E 9/20/95 F
Poa siphonoglossa No common name E 9/20/95 F
Pogogyne abramsii Mesa-mint, San Diego E 9/3/98 F
Pogogyne nudiuscula Mesa-mint, Otay E 9/3/98 F
Polygala lewtonii Polygala, Lewton's E 5/18/99 F
Polygala smallii Polygala, tiny E 5/18/99 F
Polygonella basiramia Wireweed E 5/18/99 F
Polygonella myriophylla Sandlace E 5/18/99 F
Polygonum hickmanii Polygonum, Scotts Valley E None
Portulaca sclerocarpa Poˋe E 9/26/96 F
Potamogeton clystocarpus Pondweed, Little Aguja (=Creek) E 6/20/94 F
Potentilla hickmanii Potentilla, Hickman's E 12/20/04 F
Primula maguirei Primrose, Maguire T 9/27/90 F
Pritchardia affinis Loˋulu E 9/26/96 F
Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii Wahane E N/A E
Pritchardia kaalae Loˋulu E 8/10/98 F
Pritchardia munroi Loˋulu E 9/26/96 F
Pritchardia napaliensis Loˋulu E 8/23/98 F
Pritchardia remota Loˋulu E 3/31/98 F
Pritchardia schattaueri Loˋulu E 5/11/98 F
Pritchardia viscosa Loˋulu E 8/23/98 F
Prunus geniculata Plum, scrub E 6/20/96 RF(1)
Pseudobahia bahiifolia Sunburst, Hartweg's golden E 9/16/05 U
Pseudobahia peirsonii Sunburst, San Joaquin adobe T 9/16/05 U
Pteralyxia kauaiensis Kaulu E 9/20/95 F
Ptilimnium nodosum Harperella E 3/5/91 F
Purshia (=cowania) subintegra Cliff-rose, Arizona E 6/16/95 F
Quercus hinckleyi Oak, Hinckley T 9/30/92 F
Ranunculus aestivalis (=acriformis) Buttercup, autumn E 9/16/91 F
Remya kauaiensis No common name E 9/20/95 F
Remya mauiensis Remya, Maui E 7/29/97 F
Remya montgomeryi No common name E 9/20/95 F
Rhododendron chapmanii Rhododendron, Chapman E 9/8/83 F
Rhus michauxii Sumac, Michaux's E 4/30/93 F
Rhynchospora knieskernii Beaked-rush, Knieskern's T 9/29/93 F
Ribes echinellum Gooseberry, Miccosukee T N/A E
Rorippa gambellii Watercress, Gambel's E 9/28/98 F
Sagittaria fasciculata Arrowhead, bunched E 9/8/83 F
Sagittaria secundifolia Water-plantain, Kral's T 8/12/91 F
Sanicula mariversa No common name E 8/12/95 F
Sanicula purpurea No common name E 7/10/99 F
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense Sandalwood, Lanai (=ìliahi) E 9/29/95 F
Sarracenia oreophila Pitcher-plant, green E 12/12/94 RF(2)
Sarracenia rubra alabamensis Pitcher-plant, Alabama canebrake E 10/8/92 F
Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii Pitcher-plant, mountain sweet E 8/13/90 F
Scaevola coriacea Naupaka, dwarf E 7/29/97 F
Schiedea adamantis Schiedea, Diamond Head E 2/2/94 F
Schiedea apokremnos Maˋoliˋoli E 9/20/95 F
Schiedea haleakalensis No common name E 7/29/97 F
Schiedea helleri No common name E 8/23/98 F
Schiedea hookeri No common name E 7/10/99 F
Schiedea kaalae No common name E 8/12/95 F
Schiedea kauaiensis No common name E 8/23/98 F
Schiedea kealiae Maˋoliˋoli E 8/10/98 F
Schiedea lydgatei No common name E 9/26/96 F
Schiedea membranacea No common name E 8/23/98 F
Schiedea nuttallii No common name E 7/10/99 F
Schiedea sarmentosa No common name E 5/20/98 F
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda No common name E 9/20/95 F
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina No common name T 9/20/95 F
Schiedea stellarioides Laulihilihi E 8/23/98 F
Schiedea verticillata No common name E 3/31/98 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
Schoenocrambe argillacea Reed-mustard, clay T 9/14/94 F
Schoenocrambe barnebyi Reed-mustard, Barneby E 9/14/94 F
Schoenocrambe suffrutescens Reed-mustard, shrubby E 9/14/94 F
Schoepfia arenaria No common name T 1/10/92 F
Schwalbea americana Chaffseed, American E 9/29/95 F
Scirpus ancistrochaetus Bulrush, Northeastern E 8/25/93 F
Sclerocactus glaucus Cactus, Uinta Basin hookless T 9/27/90 F
Sclerocactus mesae-verdae Cactus, Mesa Verde T 3/30/84 F
Sclerocactus wrightiae Cactus, Wright fishhook E 12/24/85 F
Scutellaria floridana Skullcap, Florida T 6/22/94 F
Scutellaria montana Skullcap, large-flowered T 5/15/96 F
Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi Roseroot, Leedy's T 9/25/98 F
Senecio franciscanus Groundsel, San Francisco Peaks T 7/21/87 F
Senecio layneae Butterweed, Layne's T 8/30/02 F
Serianthes nelsonii Iagu, Hayun (=(Guam), Tronkon guafi (Rota)) E 2/2/94 F
Sesbania tomentosa Ohai E 7/10/99 F
Sibara filifolia Rockcress, Santa Cruz Island E 9/16/05 U
Sicyos alba ˋAnunu E 5/11/98 F
Sidalcea keckii Checker-mallow, Keck's E 9/16/05 U
Sidalcea nelsoniana Checker-mallow, Nelson's T 9/30/98 F
Sidalcea oregana ssp. valida Checker-mallow, Kenwood Marsh E None
Sidalcea oregana var. calva Checkermallow, Wenatchee Mountains E 9/30/04 F
Sidalcea pedata Checker-mallow, pedate E 7/31/98 F
Silene alexandri No common name E 9/26/96 F
Silene hawaiiensis No common name T 9/26/96 F
Silene lanceolata No common name E 9/26/96 F
Silene perlmanii No common name E 8/12/95 F
Silene polypetala Campion, fringed E 10/1/96 D
Silene spaldingii Catchfly, Spalding's T 9/21/05 U
Sisyrinchium dichotomum Irisette, white E 4/10/95 F
Solanum drymophilum Erubia E 7/9/92 F
Solanum incompletum Popolo ku mai E 7/10/99 F
Solanum sandwicense ˋAiakeakua, popolo E 9/20/95 F
Solidago albopilosa Goldenrod, white-haired T 9/28/93 F
Solidago houghtonii Goldenrod, Houghton's T 9/17/97 F
Solidago shortii Goldenrod, Short's E 5/25/88 F
Solidago spithamaea Goldenrod, Blue Ridge T 10/28/87 F
Spermolepis hawaiiensis No common name E 7/10/99 F
Spigelia gentianoides Pinkroot, gentian E None
Spiraea virginiana Spiraea, Virginia T 11/13/92 F
Spiranthes delitescens Ladies'-tresses, Canelo Hills E None
Spiranthes diluvialis Ladies'-tresses, Ute T 9/21/95 D
Spiranthes parksii Ladies'-tresses, Navasota E 9/21/84 F
Stahlia monosperma Cobana negra T 11/1/96 F
Stenogyne angustifolia var. angustifolia No common name E 9/20/93 D
Stenogyne bifida No common name E 9/26/96 F
Stenogyne campanulata No common name E 9/20/95 F
Stenogyne kanehoana No common name E 8/12/95 F
Stephanomeria malheurensis Wire-lettuce, Malheur E 3/21/91 F
Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidus Jewelflower, Metcalf Canyon E 9/30/98 F
Streptanthus niger Jewelflower, Tiburon E 9/30/98 F
Styrax portoricensis Palo de jazmin E 7/31/95 F
Styrax texanus Snowbells, Texas E 7/31/87 F
Suaeda californica Seablite, California E None
Swallenia alexandrae Grass, Eureka Dune E 12/13/82 F
Taraxacum californicum Taraxacum, California E 9/16/05 U
Ternstroemia luquillensis Palo colorado E 7/31/95 F
Ternstroemia subsessilis No common name E 7/31/95 F
Tetramolopium arenarium No common name E 9/26/96 F
Tetramolopium capillare Pamakani E 7/29/97 F
Tetramolopium filiforme No common name E 8/12/95 F
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum No common name E 8/12/95 F
Tetramolopium remyi No common name E 9/29/95 F
Tetramolopium rockii No common name T 9/26/96 F
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa ˋoheˋohe E 8/10/98 F
Thalictrum cooleyi Meadowrue, Cooley's E 4/21/94 F
Thelypodium howellii spectabilis Thelypody, Howell's spectacular T 6/3/02 F
Thelypodium stenopetalum Mustard, slender-petaled E 7/31/98 F
Thlaspi californicum Penny-cress, Kneeland Prairie E 8/14/03 F
Thymophylla tephroleuca Dogweed, ashy E 7/29/88 F
Thysanocarpus conchuliferus Fringepod, Santa Cruz Island E 9/26/2000 F
Townsendia aprica Townsendia, Last Chance T 8/20/93 F

TABLE 11.1 Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED] Adapted from "Flowering Plants Species Report" and "Non-Flowering Species Report" and "Listed FWS/Joint FWS and NMFS Species and Populations with Recovery Plans (Sorted by Listed Entity)," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, March 6, 2006, http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/StartTESS.do (accessed March 6, 2006)

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [CONTINUED]
Scientific name Inverted common name Listing statusa Recovery plan date Recovery plan statusb
aE=endangered, T=threatened
bRecovery plan stages: E=exempt, U = under development, F=final, D=draft, TD=technical draft, RD=draft under revision, RF=final revision, O=other
SOURCE: Adapted from "Flowering Plants Species Report" and "Non-Flowering Species Report" and "Listed FWS/Joint FWS and NMFS Species and Populations with Recovery Plans (Sorted by Listed Entity)," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, March 6, 2006, http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/StartTESS.do (accessed March 6, 2006)
Trematolobelia singularis No common name E 8/10/98 F
Trichilia triacantha Bariaco E 8/20/91 F
Trichostema austromontanum ssp. compactum Bluecurls, Hidden Lake T 9/16/05 U
Trifolium amoenum Clover, showy Indian E None
Trifolium stoloniferum Clover, running buffalo E 8/12/05 RD(1)
Trifolium trichocalyx Clover, Monterey E 12/20/04 F
Trillium persistens Trillium, persistent E 3/27/84 F
Trillium reliquum Trillium, relict E 1/31/91 F
Tuctoria greenei Tuctoria, Greene's E 3/7/06 F
Tuctoria mucronata Grass, Solano E 9/11/85 F
Urera kaalae Opuhe E 8/12/95 F
Verbena californica Vervain, Red Hills T 9/16/05 U
Verbesina dissita Crownbeard, big-leaved T None
Vernonia proctorii No common name E 7/31/95 F
Vicia menziesii Vetch, Hawaiian E 5/18/84 F
Vigna o-wahuensis No common name E 7/10/99 F
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana Pamakani E 8/12/95 F
Viola helenae No common name E 5/31/94 F
Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis Nani waiˋaleˋale E 8/23/98 F
Viola lanaiensis No common name E 9/29/95 F
Viola oahuensis No common name E 8/10/98 F
Warea amplexifolia Warea, wide-leaf E 2/17/93 F
Warea carteri Mustard, Carter's E 5/18/99 F
Wilkesia hobdyi Iliau, dwarf E 9/20/95 F
Xylosma crenatum No common name E 9/20/95 F
Xyris tennesseensis Grass, Tennessee yellow-eyed E 6/24/94 F
Yermo xanthocephalus Yellowhead, desert T None
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum Aˋe E 5/11/98 F
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense Aˋe E 9/26/96 F
Zanthoxylum thomasianum Prickly-ash, St. Thomas E 4/5/88 F
Zizania texana Wild-rice, Texas E 2/14/96 RF(1)
Ziziphus celata Ziziphus, Florida E 5/18/99 F

limited range of distribution and are threatened by alteration and loss of habitat.

Cycads are unusual plants often mistaken for palms or ferns. They have thick, soft trunks and large, leaf-like crowns. Cycads are found in tropical or semitropical regions. Their rarity makes them popular with collectors. The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) is the only cycad listed under the ESA. This scrubby tree is extremely rare and is found only on the bluffs along the Apalachicola River in the panhandle of Florida. An unknown disease virtually wiped out the species in the wild during the 1950s.

Ferns and Allies

Ferns are an abundant and diverse plant group. There are up to 20,000 species of ferns, and they are associated mostly with tropical and subtropical regions. In general these plants are characterized by stems with long protruding "leaves" called fronds. Fern allies are plants with similar life cycles to ferns, but without their stem or leaf structure. Examples of fern allies include the club mosses and horsetails.

There are twenty-six fern and allied species listed under the ESA. Nearly all are endangered. Geographical locations with large numbers of imperiled ferns include Hawaii (twelve species) and Puerto Rico (eight species). The remaining species are found primarily in the Southeast, with the exception of the Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum), which is native to Alaska.

Lichens

Lichens are not truly plants. Scientists place them in the fungi kingdom, instead of the plant kingdom. Lichens are plantlike life-forms composed of two separate organ-isms—a fungus and an alga. Biologists believe there are up to 4,000 lichen species in the United States. They are found in many different habitats and grow extremely slowly. Some lichens look like moss, while others appear more like traditional plants with a leafy or blade structure. Lichens do not have a "skin" to protect them from the atmosphere. They are highly sensitive to air contaminants and have disappeared from many urban areas, presumably because of air pollution. Lichens are most predominant in undisturbed forests, bogs, and wetlands, TABLE 11.2 The ten listed plant entities with the highest expenditures under the Endangered Species Act, fiscal year 2004 Adapted from "Table 1. Reported FY 2004 Expenditures for Endangered and Threatened Species, Not Including Land Acquisition Costs," in Federal and State Endangered and Threatened Species Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2004, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, January 2005, http://www.fws.gov/endangered/expenditures/reports/FWS%20Endangered%20Species%202004%20Expenditures%20Report.pdf (accessed February 11, 2006)particularly in California, Hawaii, Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and the Appalachians. They are commonly found on rocky outcroppings. Lichens provide a foodstuff for some animals and are used by some bird species in nest building.

TABLE 11.2
The ten listed plant entities with the highest expenditures under the Endangered Species Act, fiscal year 2004
Cimmon name Scientific name Listing status* Expenditure
*E=endangered; T=threatened
SOURCE: Adapted from "Table 1. Reported FY 2004 Expenditures for Endangered and Threatened Species, Not Including Land Acquisition Costs," in Federal and State Endangered and Threatened Species Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2004, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, January 2005, http://www.fws.gov/endangered/expenditures/reports/FWS%20Endangered%20Species%202004%20Expenditures%20Report.pdf (accessed February 11, 2006)
Peirson's milk-vetch Astragalus magdalenae var.peirsonii T $1,069,717
Pondberry Lindera melissifolia E $827,115
Nelson's checker-mallow Sidalcea nelsoniiana T $621,980
Gentner's fritillary Fritillaria gentneri E $427,440
Texas wild-rice Zizania texana E $417,660
Mauna Loa (=Kaˋu) silversword Argyroxiphium kauense E $360,152
Ute ladies'-tresses Spiranthes diluvialis T $303,810
Western prairie fringed orchid Platanthera praeclara T $292,639
Seabeach amaranth Amaranthus pumilus T $283,384
Kincaid's lupine Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var.kincaidii) T $276,068

As of March 2006 there were two lichen species listed under the ESA—rock gnome lichen (Gymnoderma lineare) and Florida perforate cladonia (Cladonia perforata). Both are classified as endangered. During the 1970s rock gnome lichen was virtually wiped out in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee due to zealous collecting by scientists. Florida perforate clado-nia is found only in rosemary scrub habitats in portions of Florida. It is endangered due to loss or degradation of those habitats.

Flowering Plants

Flowering plants are vascular plants with flowers—clusters of specialized leaves that participate in reproduction. The flowers of some species are large and colorful, while others are extremely small and barely noticeable to humans. Biologists estimate that 80% to 90% of all plants on Earth are flowering plants.

As shown in Table 11.1, there are more than 700 flowering plants listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA. They come from a wide variety of taxonomic groups and are found in many different habitats. The five largest families represented are as follows:

FIGURE 11.3 Regional distribution of listed threatened and endangered plants, March 2006 Adapted from data retrieved via query at http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/SpeciesForm.do (accessed March 6,2006)

  • Asteraceae (asters, daisies, and sunflowers)—eighty-six species
  • Campanulaceae (bellflowers)—forty-nine species
  • Fabaceae (legumes and pulses)—forty-nine species
  • Lamiaceae (mints)—thirty-five species
  • Brassicaceae (mustard and cabbage)—thirty-four species
Plants - Geographical Breakdown Of Plants [next] [back] Plants - Threatened And Endangered U.s. Plant Species

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over 7 years ago

i typed milk bush were is it???