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Responsibility for the protection, management, and use of water is spread across many federal agencies. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior, has the principal responsibility within the federal government for appraising the nation's resources and providing hydrological information. Among the USGS publications used in this book are several USGS Fact Sheets, including Health Impacts of Coal Combustion (2000), Volcanic Air Pollution—A Hazard in Hawaii (1997), Desert Basins of the Southwest (2000), Land-Subsidence and Ground Water Storage Monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona (2000), Investigation of the Geology and Hydrology of the Mogollan Highlands of Central Arizona: A Project of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative (2000), U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program (2000), Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States (2000), Seagrasses in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An Ecosystem in Trouble (2000), Restoring Life to the Dead Zone: Addressing Gulf Hypoxia, a National Problem (2000), Nutria, Eating Louisiana's Coast (2000), Water Science for Schools (2001), and Largest Rivers in the United States (1990).

Other USGS publications consulted include Soil Calcium Depletion Linked to Acid Rain and Forest Growth in the Eastern United States (1999), Natural Processes of Ground-Water and Surface-Water Interaction (1998), Natural Processes for Managing Nitrate in Ground Water Discharged to Chesapeake Bay and Other Surface Waters: More Than Forest Buffers (1997), Ground Waters and Surface Waters—A Single Resource (1998), Water-Level Changes, 1980 to 1997, and Saturated Thickness, 1996–97, in the High Plains Aquifer (1999), Ground Water Atlas of the United States—Oklahoma, Texas (1996), Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking Water Characterization (2000), and Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000 (2004).

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the federal regulatory agency charged with, among other things, protection of surface and ground water quality, the development of water quality standards, and the enforcement of laws addressing water quality. Its Liquid Assets 2000: America's Water Resources at a Turning Point (2000) and 2000 National Water Quality Inventory (2002) contain data collected from every state concerning water quality and provide the most current information concerning water quality nationwide. The EPA documents State of the Great Lakes 1999 (1999), Great Lakes 2001—A Plan for the New Millennium: A Strategic Plan for the Great Lakes—Our Environmental Goals and How We Plan to Achieve Them (2001), Final Regulation to Ban Mixing Zones in the Great Lakes (2000), and Great Lakes Monitoring (2003) were very useful in addressing Great Lakes water quality issues. Additional EPA documents used were Acid Rain Program: 2003 Progress Report (2004), America's Children and the Environment: Measures of Contaminants, Body Burdens, and Illnesses (2003), Coastlines, Issue No. 2—Pinpointing the Source of Oil Spills (2000), Nearshore Waters and Your Coastal Watershed (1998), BEACH Watch—EPA's BEACH Watch Program: 2001 Update (2002), Plastic Pellets in the Aquatic Environment (1993), 1999 Acid Rain Compliance Report (2000), National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report 1998 (2000), and Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat (2001).

The EPA also oversees the states' management of drinking water protection programs. EPA documents useful in providing information concerning this program were Factoids: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2003 (2004), Water Facts (1999), National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment (1998), National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (1998), Lead in Your Drinking Water (1993), Community Involvement in Drinking Water Source Assessments (2000), It's Your Drinking Water: Get to Know It and Protect It! (2000), Public Drinking Water Systems: Facts and Figures (2005), Drinking Water Treatment (1999), Drinking Water Standards & Health Effects (1999), Drinking Water: Past, Present, and Future (2000), Protecting Drinking Water Sources (1999), and 25 Years of the Safe Drinking Water Act: Protecting Our Health from Source to Tap (2000).

The Government Accountability Office (GAO), the investigative arm of Congress, has published numerous reports on a variety of water-related issues. Publications reviewed for this book include Acid Rain: Emissions Trends and Effects in the Eastern United States (March 2000), Water-Efficient Plumbing Fixtures Reduce Water Consumption and Wastewater Flows (2000), Drinking Water: Spending Constraints Could Affect States' Ability to Implement Increasing Program Requirements (2000), Oregon Watersheds—Many Activities Contribute to Increased Turbidity during Large Storms (1998), An Assessment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement of the Lower Snake River Dams (2000), Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps (2000), Corps of Engineers' Actions to Assist Salmon in the Columbia River Basin (1998), Recommendations for Improving the Underground Storage Tank Program (2003), and Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Better Ensure the Safety of Underground Storage Tanks (2001).

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a branch of the Department of Commerce, has the principal responsibility within the federal government for appraising and protecting the nation's aquatic resources, managing its fisheries, and predicting weather and climate. NOAA publications used for this book include The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes from 1900 to 2000 (2001), Alien Ocean—Understanding Species Invasions (2001), National Assessment of Harmful Algal Blooms (1999), State of the Coast Report (1999), Chemical Contaminants in Oysters and Mussels (1998), The Extent and Condition of U.S. Coastal Reefs (1998), Populations of Harvested Fishes and Invertebrates (1998), Classified Shellfish Growing Waters (1998), and Populations at Risk from Natural Hazards (1998).

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), a branch of the Department of the Interior, is charged with protection of living resources. USFWS documents used for this report include National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation (1996) and Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 1986 to 1997 (2000).

The U.S. Department of Agriculture documents USDA Farm Bill Conservation Provisions—Protection of Wetlands (1997) and Summary Report—2003 National Resources Inventory (2004) were consulted to explain the role this agency plays in wetland conservation.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is the federal agency with primary jurisdiction in wetland and dredging issues. Its publications Recognizing Wetlands (1998) and Dredged Material Marshes: Summary of Three Research Projects (2000) were consulted for this book.

The Public Health Service (PHS) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are branches of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The PHS Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) document ATSDR TOX FAQs—Arsenic (1993) provided background information on arsenic toxicity. CDC documents used in this book include Surveillance for Waterborne-Disease Outbreaks—United States, 1999–2000 (2002), CDC's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (1998), and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (2004).

Other important publications include the United Nations Children's Education Fund (UNICEF) report Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (2000) and Cadillac Desert (Marc Reisner, New York: Penguin Books, 1993), a discussion of water resources and use in the western United States. Water reuse information from "Safeguarding Our Water—How We Can Do It" in Scientific American (2001) and wetland restoration information from "Add Water and Stir" in Nature Conservancy (2001) were valuable. "Coral Reefs" in the Encyclopedia of the Environment (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997) was also helpful.

Additional important publications about water use in the western United States include the U.S. Department of the Interior's Water 2025: Preventing Crises and Conflict in the West (2003), "Climate Variability and the Colorado Compact" in Societal Responses to Regional Climatic Change: Forecasting by Analogy (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988), "Drought Recurrence in the Great Plains as Reconstructed from Long-Term Tree-Ring Records" in Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology (1983), "Reallocating Texas Water: Slicing up the Leftover Pie" in Texas Water Resources (1993), Water in the West Today: A States' Perspective—Report to the Western Water Policy Review Commission (1997), "Changing Water Use and Demand in the Southwest" in Impact of Climate Change and Land Use in the Southern United States (1997), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1999 publication, Past and Future Freshwater Use in the United States.

Many organizations devote their time and resources to the protection of water to meet human and ecological needs. The Gallup Organization provided public opinion polls and the League of Women Voters provided Groundwater: A Citizen's Guide (1986). The Nature Conservancy supplied information concerning endangered and threatened species, and Ducks Unlimited discussed wetlands restoration. The American Dental Association's American Dental Association Statement on Water Fluoridation Efficacy and Safety (2000) and Story of Fluoridation (2000) provided useful material, as did the American Waterworks Association Research Foundation's Research Applications: Research in Use—How Utilities Are Building Watershed Partnerships (1999) and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators' ASDWA Comments on EPA Proposed Arsenic Rule. The American Petroleum Institute's information concerning oil spills and the International Bottled Water Association's survey America's Drinking Habits (2000) were also helpful.

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