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Working Toward Species Conservation - The Endangered Species Act Of 1973—a Landmark Protection

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The Endangered Species Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1973. It is generally considered one of the most far-reaching laws ever enacted by any nation for the preservation of wildlife. The passage of the Endangered Species Act resulted from alarm at the decline of numerous species

TABLE 2.1
First list of endangered species, 1967
In accordance with section 1(c) of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 926; 16 U.S.C. 668aa(c) I [the Secretary of the Interior] find after consulting the states, interested organizations, and individual scientists, that the following listed native fish and wildlife are threatened with extinction.

Mammals
• Indiana bat—Myotis sodalis • Laysan finchbill (Laysan Finch)—Psittirostra c. cantans
• Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel—Sciurus niger cinereus • Nihoa finchbill (Nihoa Finch)—Psittirostra cantans ultima
• Timber wolf—Canis lupus lycaon • Ou—Psittirostra psittacea
• Red wolf—Canis niger • Palila—Psittirostra bailleui
• San Joaquin kit fox—Vulpes macrotis mutica • Maui parrotbill—Pseudonestor xanthophyrys
• Grizzly bear—Ursus horribilis • Bachman's warbler—Vermivora bachmanii
• Black-footed ferret—Mustela nigripes • Kirtland's warbler—Dendroica kirtlandii
• Florida panther—Felis concolor coryi • Dusky seaside sparrow—Ammospiza nigrescens
• Caribbean monk seal—Monachus tropicalis • Cape Sable sparrow—Ammospiza mirabilis
• Guadalupe fur seal—Arctocephalus philippi townsendi
• Florida manatee or Florida sea cow—Trichechus manatus latirostris Reptiles and Amphibians
• Key deer—Odocoileus virginianus clavium • American alligator—Alligator mississippiensis
• Sonoran pronghorn—Antilocapra americana sonoriensis • Blunt-nosed leopard lizard—Crotaphytus wislizenii silus
• San Francisco garter snake—Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia
Birds • Santa Cruz long-toed salamander—Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum
• Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel—Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis • Texas blind salamander—Typhlomolge rathbuni
• Hawaiian goose (nene)—Branta sandvicensis • Black toad, Inyo County toad—Bufo exsul
• Aleutian Canada goose—Branta canadensis leucopareia
• Tule white-fronted goose—Anser albifrons gambelli Fishes
• Laysan duck—Anas laysanensis • Shortnose sturgeon—Acipenser brevirostrum
• Hawaiian duck (or koloa)—Anas wyvilliana • Longjaw cisco—Coregonus alpenae
• Mexican duck—Anas diazi • Paiute cutthroat trout—Salmo clarki seleniris
• California condor—Gymnogyps californianus • Greenback cuttthroat trout—Salmo clarki stomias
• Florida Everglade kite (Florida Snail Kite)—Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus • Montana Westslope cutthroat trout—Salmo clarki
• Hawaiian hawk (or ii)—Buteo solitarius • Gila trout—Salmo gilae
• Southern bald eagle—Haliaeetus t. leucocephalus • Arizona (Apache) trout—Salmo sp
• Attwater's greater prairie chicken—Tympanuchus cupido attwateri • Desert dace—Eremichthys acros
• Masked bobwhite—Colinus virginianus ridgwayi • Humpback chub—Gila cypha
• Whooping crane—Grus americana • Little Colorado spinedace—Lepidomeda vittata
• Yuma clapper rail—Rallus longirostris yumanensis • Moapa dace—Moapa coriacea
• Hawaiian common gallinule—Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis • Colorado River squawfish—Ptychocheilus lucius
• Eskimo curlew—Numenius borealis • Cui-ui—Chasmistes cujus
• Puerto Rican parrot—Amazona vittata • Devils Hole pupfish—Cyprinodon diabolis
• American ivory-billed woodpecker—Campephilus p. principalis • Commanche Springs pupfish—Cyprinodon elegans
• Hawaiian crow (or alala)—Corvus hawaiiensis • Owens River pupfish—Cyprinodon radiosus
• Small Kauai thrush (puaiohi)—Phaeornia pulmeri • Pahrump killifish—Empetrichythys latos
• Nihoa millerbird—Acrocephalus kingi • Big Bend gambusia—Gambusia gaigei
• Kauai oo (or oo aa)—Moho braccatus • Clear Creek gambusia—Gambusia heterochir
• Crested honeycreeper (or akohekohe)—Palmeria dolei • Gila topminnow—Poeciliopsis occidentalis
• Akiapolaau—Hemignathus wilsoni • Maryland darter—Etheostoma sellare
• Kauai akialoa—Hemignathus procerus • Blue pike—Stizostedion vitreum glaucum
• Kauai nukupuu—Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe
SOURCE: Stewart L. Udall, "Native Fish and Wildlife Endangered Species," in Federal Register, vol. 32, no. 48, March 11, 1967

worldwide, as well as from a recognition of the importance of preserving species diversity. The purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to identify species that are either endangered—at risk of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range—or threatened—likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. With the exception of pest species, all animals and plants are eligible for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Listed species are protected without regard to either commercial or sport value.

The Endangered Species Act is administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Department of Commerce, through the National Marine Fisheries Service, is responsible for marine species.

The Endangered Species List

After passage of the Endangered Species Act, the Fish and Wildlife Service was inundated with petitions for the listing of species—approximately 24,000 petitions were received in the first two years after passage. As of February 2004, there are 985 U.S. species (388 animals and 597 plants) and 517 foreign species (516 animals and 1 plant) listed as endangered, and 275 U.S. (128 animals and 147 plants) and 41 foreign species (39 animals and 2 plants) listed as threatened. Thousands of other species are being studied to see if they need to be added to the list.

The Listing Process

The process for listing a new species as endangered or threatened begins with a formal petition from a person or organization. (Figure 2.1 diagrams the petition process.) This petition is submitted to the Fish and Wildlife Service for terrestrial and freshwater species and to the National Marine Fisheries Service for marine species. All petitions must be backed by published scientific data supporting the need for listing. Within 90 days, the Fish and Wildlife Service FIGURE 2.1
The petition process to list a species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act
or National Marine Fisheries Service determines whether there is "substantial information" to suggest that a species requires being listed under the Endangered Species Act. Approximately 65 percent of petitions for species are found to have substantial information to warrant further study, whereas 35 percent do not.

For petitions that present biological data suggesting that listing may be necessary, the Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service then performs a status review to determine whether listing is warranted. This process must be completed within 12 months. In the past, over half the petitions warrant action. Once it has been determined that action on a species is warranted, that species becomes a candidate species. Candidate species may immediately join the list of proposed species. However, in some cases, it may be decided that other candidate species have higher priority. If this is the case, the species is designated as "warranted but precluded," that is, immediate action is precluded by more urgent listing activity. Species that are listed as "warranted but precluded" are re-evaluated annually to confirm that listing continues to be warranted. These species continue to be re-evaluated until they either join the list of proposed species or until their status has improved sufficiently that they are no longer warranted for listing.

A species is officially proposed for listing through the publication of this action in the Federal Register. At this point, the Fish and Wildlife Service asks three independent biological experts to verify that the petitioned species requires listing under either threatened or endangered status. After that, input from the public, from other federal and state agencies, and from the scientific community is welcomed. This period of public comment lasts 60 days. Following the sixty-day period, the final rule regarding listing of the species is published in the Federal Register, and listing is effective thirty days after publication.

Figure 2.2 shows the number of species proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act by state as of February 19, 2004, and these species are listed in Table 2.2. There were thirty-six U.S. proposed species in February 2004. (Three of these were proposed as threatened rather than endangered.) The Fish and Wildlife Service also keeps a list of candidate species (those for which there is scientific evidence warranting their proposal for listing, but which have yet to become proposed species). The Fish and Wildlife Service works with state wildlife agencies and other groups to help preserve and improve the status of candidate species, with the hope that populations may recover enough that species will not require listing. In February 2004 there were 256 U.S. candidate species recognized by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Figure 2.3 shows the number of candidate species per state.

After a species is listed, its condition and situation are reviewed at least every five years to decide whether it still requires government protection. Once the species is able to survive without government protection, it may be removed from the list.

Conserving Listed Species

Conservation efforts for protected species begin with the preparation of a recovery plan by the Fish and Wildlife FIGURE 2.2
Proposed additions to the list of endangered and threatened species, by state or territory, 2004
Service that details how the species will be protected and helped to thrive. This report also includes the estimated timeline for and cost of recovery. In many cases, recovery efforts include the designation of critical habitat—that is, areas of land, water, and air space that are used by threatened and endangered species for breeding, resting, and feeding. Critical habitat designation does not set up a refuge, and has no regulatory impact on private landowners unless they wish to take actions on their land that involve federal funding or permits. Species which have had critical habitat designated are listed in Table 2.3. For a small number of species, primarily mammals, birds, fish, and aquatic invertebrates, recovery efforts include the introduction of individuals into new areas. Species with so-called "experimental populations" are listed in Table 2.4.

The Endangered Species Act gives the government and its agencies the power to do whatever is necessary to protect a threatened or endangered species. However, budgetary constraints severely limit the action that can be taken. In 2004 the Fish and Wildlife Service had at its disposal $9.8 million for the conservation of candidate species, $12.1 million for listing activity, $47.1 million for consultations with federal and private agencies to resolve potential issues, and $67.9 million for the recovery of listed species. How best to use these funds is contentious. In fact, in 2000, 50 percent of recovery expenditures were used to conserve only seven species (0.6 percent of listed species), and 90 percent of recovery expenditures were used to conserve 91 listed species (7.4 percent of all listed species). This means that very little effort goes towards the conservation of the large majority of endangered and threatened species. The ten species with the highest reported expenditure for 1998–2000 are shown in Table 2.5.

The number of species being added to the federal threatened and endangered species list is likely to continue to grow. Although vertebrate species dominated the list during the first years of the act, plants and invertebrate animals now make up a much greater proportion of listed species. (See Table 1.2 in Chapter 1.) These species are

TABLE 2.2
Species proposed to be added to the endangered or threatened list, 2004

Status Species name
Mammals
PE Addax (Addax nasomaculatus)
PT Bat, Mariana fruit (Mariana flying fox) (Pteropus mariannus mariannus)
PE Dugong (Dugong dugon)
PE Fox, San Miguel Island (Urocyon littoralis littoralis)
PE Fox, Santa Catalina Island (Urocyon littoralis catalinae)
PE Fox, Santa Cruz Island (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae)
PE Fox, Santa Rosa Island (Urocyon littoralis santarosae)
PE Gazelle, dama (Gazella dama)
PE Oryx, scimitar-horned (Oryx dammah)
Birds
PE White-eye, Rota bridled (Zosterops rotensis)
Amphibians
PT Salamander, California tiger (Ambystoma californiense)
Fishes
PE Chub, Cowhead Lake tui (Gila bicolor vaccaceps)
PE Chub, Gila (Gila intermedia)
PT Salmon, coho (Oncorhynchus (Salmo) kisutch)
PE Sturgeon, Beluga (Huso huso)
Snails
PE Snail, Koster's tryonia (Tryonia kosteri)
PE Snail, Pecos assiminea (Assiminea pecos)
PE Springsnail, Roswell (Pyrgulopsis roswellensis)
Insects
PE Butterfly, Sacramento Mountains checkerspot (Euphydryas anicia cloudcrofti)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila aglaia)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila differens)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila hemipeza)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila heteroneura)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila montgomeryi)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila mulli)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila musaphila)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila neoclavisetae)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila obatai)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila ochrobasis)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila substenoptera)
PE Pomace fly, [unnamed] (Drosophila tarphytrichia)
Crustaceans
PE Amphipod, Noel's (Gammarus desperatus)
Flowering plants
PE Peppergrass, Slick spot (Lepidium papilliferum)
PE Nesogenes rotensis (No common name)
PE Osmoxylon mariannense (No common name)
PE Tabernaemontana rotensis (No common name)
Note: Proposed species count is 36 (excludes proposed "similarity of appearance" and experimental populations)
PE = proposed endangered
PT = proposed threatened
SOURCE: "Proposed Species as of 02/10/2004," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/TESSWebpageNonlisted?listings=0&type=P [accessed February 10, 2004]

politically more difficult to defend than either mammals or birds, which are more inherently appealing to most Americans because of the "warm and fuzzy" factor. These circumstances raise questions about the continued feasibility of a species-by-species preservation strategy, and the Fish and Wildlife Service struggles under intense legal and political pressures to decide which species to protect first.

For its supporters, the Endangered Species Act has proved to be one of the most effective conservation laws ever enacted. Many Americans believe that the Endangered Species Act has saved many species from extinction. An estimated 40 percent of species on the list are either stable in population size or increasing in number. A few species have improved sufficiently to have their listing status changed. In Table 2.6, species whose status has been changed since listing under the Endangered Species Act are detailed. Many endangered species (E) have been reclassified as threatened (T), indicating that their status has improved since protection under the Endangered Species Act. Other species have declined in population, however, and have shifted from threatened to endangered.

Extinct, Recovered, and Down-Listed Species

Species may be removed from the Endangered Species List for three reasons:

  1. The species has become extinct.
  2. The species has recovered to such an extent that it is no longer threatened or endangered.
  3. The original information warranting listing has been shown to be incorrect, or new information suggests that the species is not actually endangered or threatened.

As of February 2004, thirty-seven species that were once on the Endangered Species List had been removed from the list, or delisted. These species are shown in Table 2.7, along with the reason for being delisted. Of the species delisted, seven were removed from the list because they went extinct (two more were believed extinct), fifteen species were delisted because they were considered recovered, and fifteen species were delisted either because the original data was in error, because new information had been discovered, or because of taxonomic revision. Reclassification has been proposed for another twelve species, shown in Table 2.8. This includes the proposed delisting of species such as the bald eagle due to recovery.

Habitat Conservation Plans

Endangered and threatened species live and roam wherever they find suitable habitat, without regard to whether the land is federal or non-federal, or public or private. Many landowners fear being denied free use of their land because of laws protecting the endangered species that inhabit it. Recognizing this concern, Congress amended the Endangered Species Act in 1982 to allow for the creation of Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) governing land use or development. HCPs are generally partnerships drawn up by people at the local level, working with Fish and Wildlife Service officials. They frequently represent compromises between developers and environmentalists.

HCPs typically allow some individuals of a threatened or endangered species to be "taken" (harmed or killed) under a special authority called an incidental take permit. Included in the agreement is a "no surprise" provision FIGURE 2.3
Number of species that are candidates for the endangered or threatened list, by state or territory, 2004
that assures landowners or developers that the overall cost of species protection measures will be limited to what has been agreed to under the HCP. In return, landowners make a long-term commitment to conservation as negotiated in the HCP. Many HCPs include the preservation of significant areas of habitat for endangered species. In 2003 a lawsuit brought by Spirit of the Sage Council challenged the "no surprise" policy, arguing that it allowed for too much damage to endangered species. The "no surprise" policy is now being reconsidered in the courts.

Although the HCP program was implemented in 1982, it was little used before 1992, with only fourteen permits issued in that time period. However, by 2002, there were 380 plans in place. HCPs now affect over 200 listed plant and animal species on over 20 million acres of land. The Fish and Wildlife Service maintains a list of approved Habitat Conservation Plans with the locations of the sites as well as data on the listed and unlisted species involved. HCPs have become an necessary tool in the negotiation of endangered species conservation.

A Habitat Conservation Plan for San Diego County

In 1997, after more than a decade of debate and negotiation, environmentalists and developers settled upon an HCP—the "Multispecies Conservation Plan"—for San Diego County. It is regarded by some experts as a possible national model. Under the HCP, certain undeveloped sections of land were permanently set aside as protected natural habitat, while other areas were opened to unrestricted development. Setting aside a connected (rather than fragmented) area of protected natural habitat is a crucial aspect of this HCP. The plan affects some eighty-five species of vulnerable plants and animals. The "Multispecies Conservation Plan" pleased environmentalists because of the creation of a large, permanent preserve for species protection. Developers were pleased that unrestricted development could proceed without costly legal challenges by environmentalists in defined areas.

Desert Tortoises and the Washington County HCP

In Washington County, Utah, an HCP was developed in 1996 to bridge differences between developers and conservationists

TABLE 2.3
Endangered or threatened species, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
Mammals Amphibians
E Bat, Indiana (Myotis sodalis) T Salamander, San Marcos (Eurycea nana)
E Bat, Virginia big-eared (Corynorhinus (=Plecotus) townsendii virginianus) E Toad, arroyo (=arroyo southwestern) (Bufo californicus (=microscaphus))
E Toad, Houston (Bufo houstonensis)
E Kangaroo rat, Fresno (Dipodomys nitratoides exilis) Fishes
E Kangaroo rat, Morro Bay (Dipodomys heermanni morroensis)
E Kangaroo rat, San Bernardino Merriam's (Dipodomys merriami parvus) T Catfish, Yaqui (Ictalurus pricei)
E Cavefish, Alabama (Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni)
E Manatee, West Indian (Trichechus manatus) E Chub, bonytail (Gila elegans)
E Mouse, Alabama beach (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) E Chub, Borax Lake (Gila boraxobius)
E Mouse, Choctawhatchee beach (Peromyscus polionotus allophrys) E Chub, humpback (Gila cypha)
E Mouse, Perdido Key beach (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) E Chub, Owens tui (Gila bicolor snyderi)
T Mouse, Preble's meadow jumping (Zapus hudsonius preblei) T Chub, slender (Erimystax cahni)
E Rice rat (lower Florida Keys) (Oryzomys palustris natator) T Chub, Sonora (Gila ditaenia)
E Seal, Hawaiian monk (Monachus schauinslandi) T Chub, spotfin Entire (Cyprinella monacha)
E Sea-lion, Steller (western population) (Eumetopias jubatus) E Chub, Virgin River (Gila seminuda (=robusta))
T Sea-lion, Steller (eastern population) (Eumetopias jubatus) E Chub, Yaqui (Gila purpurea)
E Sheep, bighorn (Peninsular California population) (Ovis canadensis) E Dace, Ash Meadows speckled (Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis)
E Squirrel, Mount Graham red (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) T Dace, desert (Eremichthys acros)
E Vole, Amargosa (Microtus californicus scirpensis) E Darter, amber (Percina antesella)
E Whale, right (Balaena glacialis [including australis ]) E Darter, fountain (Etheostoma fonticola)
T Wolf, gray, eastern distinct population segment (Canis lupus) T Darter, leopard (Percina pantherina)
E Darter, Maryland (Etheostoma sellare)
Birds T Darter, Niangua (Etheostoma nianguae)
E Blackbird, yellow-shouldered (Agelaius xanthomus) T Darter, slackwater (Etheostoma boschungi)
E Condor, California (U.S.A. only) (Gymnogyps californianus) E Gambusia, San Marcos (Gambusia georgei)
E Crane, Mississippi sandhill (Grus canadensis pulla) E Goby, tidewater Entire (Eucyclogobius newberryi)
E Crane, whooping (except where XN) (Grus americana) E Logperch, Conasauga (Percina jenkinsi)
T Eider, spectacled (Somateria fischeri) E Madtom, smoky Entire (Noturus baileyi)
T Eider, Steller's (Alaska breeding population) (Polysticta stelleri) T Madtom, yellowfin (except where XN) (Noturus flavipinnis)
E Elepaio, Oahu (Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis) T Minnow, loach (Tiaroga cobitis)
E Flycatcher, southwestern willow (Empidonax traillii extimus) E Minnow, Rio Grande silvery (Hybognathus amarus)
T Gnatcatcher, coastal California (Polioptila californica californica) E Pikeminnow (=squawfish), Colorado (except Salt and Verde River drainages, Arizona) (Ptychocheilus lucius)
E Kite, Everglade snail (Florida population) (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)
T Murrelet, marbled (California, Oregon, Washington) (Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus) E Pupfish, Ash Meadows Amargosa (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes)
E Pupfish, desert (Cyprinodon macularius)
T Owl, Mexican spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) E Pupfish, Leon Springs (Cyprinodon bovinus)
T Owl, northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina) E Salmon, chinook (winter Sacramento River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
E Palila (honeycreeper) (Loxioides bailleui)
E Plover, piping (Great Lakes watershed) (Charadrius melodus) E Salmon, chinook (spring upper Columbia River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
T Plover, piping (except Great Lakes watershed) (Charadrius melodus)
T Plover, western snowy (Pacific coastal population) (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) T Salmon, chinook (upper Willamette River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
E Pygmy-owl, cactus ferruginous (Arizona population) (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) T Salmon, chinook (lower Columbia River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
E Sparrow, Cape Sable seaside (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) T Salmon, chinook (spring/summer Snake River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
T Towhee, Inyo California (Pipilo crissalis eremophilus)
E Vireo, least Bell's (Vireo bellii pusillus) T Salmon, chinook (fall Snake River) (Oncorhynchus (Salmo) tshawytscha)
Reptiles T Salmon, chinook (California Central Valley spring-run) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
E Anole, Culebra Island giant (Anolis roosevelti) T Salmon, chinook (California coastal) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
T Boa, Mona (Epicrates monensis monensis) T Salmon, chinook (Puget Sound) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) tshawytscha)
E Cooter (=turtle), northern redbelly (=Plymouth) (Pseudemys rubriventris bangsi) T Salmon, chum (summer-run Hood Canal) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) keta)
T Salmon, chum (Columbia River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) keta)
E Crocodile, American (Crocodylus acutus) T Salmon, coho (Oregon, California population) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) kisutch)
E Gecko, Monito (Sphaerodactylus micropithecus)
T Iguana, Mona ground (Cyclura stejnegeri) E Salmon, sockeye U.S.A. (Snake River, Idaho stock wherever found) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) nerka)
T Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed (Uma inornata)
E Lizard, St. Croix ground (Ameiva polops) T Salmon, sockeye U.S.A. (Ozette Lake, Washington) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) nerka)
T Rattlesnake, New Mexican ridge-nosed (Crotalus willardi obscurus)
T Sea turtle, green (except where endangered) (Chelonia mydas) T Shiner, Arkansas River (Arkansas River Basin) (Notropis girardi)
E Sea turtle, hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) T Shiner, beautiful (Cyprinella formosa)
E Sea turtle, leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) E Shiner, Cape Fear (Notropis mekistocholas)
T Snake, Concho water (Nerodia paucimaculata) T Shiner, Pecos bluntnose (Notropis simus pecosensis)
T Tortoise, desert (U.S.A., except in Sonoran Desert) (Gopherus agassizii) T Silverside, Waccamaw (Menidia extensa)
T Whipsnake (=striped racer), Alameda (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) T Smelt, delta (Hypomesus transpacificus)
Amphibians T Spikedace (Meda fulgida)
T Spinedace, Big Spring (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis)
T Coqui, golden (Eleutherodactylus jasperi) T Spinedace, Little Colorado (Lepidomeda vittata)
T Frog, California red-legged (subspecies range clarified) (Rana aurora draytonii) E Spinedace, White River (Lepidomeda albivallis)
E Springfish, Hiko White River (Crenichthys baileyi grandis)

TABLE 2.3
Endangered or threatened species, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
Fishes Flowering plants
T Springfish, Railroad Valley (Crenichthys nevadae) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce kuwaleana)
E Springfish, White River (Crenichthys baileyi baileyi) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce rockii)
E Steelhead (upper Columbia River Basin) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E 'Akoko (Euphorbia haeleeleana)
E Steelhead (southern California coast) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope adscendens)
T Steelhead (middle Columbia River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope balloui)
T Steelhead (upper Willamette River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope haupuensis)
T Steelhead (central California coast) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope knudsenii)
T Steelhead (Snake River Basin) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope lydgatei)
T Steelhead (Central Valley California) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope mucronulata)
T Steelhead (lower Columbia River) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope ovalis)
T Steelhead (south central California coast) (Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss) E Alani (Melicope pallida)
T Sturgeon, gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) E Alani (Melicope quadrangularis)
E Sturgeon, white U.S.A. (Idaho, Montana), Canada (British Columbia), (Kootenai River system) (Acipenser transmontanus) E Alani (Melicope reflexa)
E Alani (Melicope saint-johnii)
E Sucker, June (Chasmistes liorus) E Alani (Melicope zahlbruckneri)
E Sucker, Modoc (Catostomus microps) T Amole, purple (Chlorogalum purpureum)
E Sucker, razorback (Xyrauchen texanus) E 'Anaunau (Lepidium arbuscula)
T Sucker, Warner (Catostomus warnerensis) E 'Anunu (Sicyos alba)
T Trout, Little Kern golden (Oncorhynchus aguabonita whitei) E Aupaka (Isodendrion hosakae)
E Woundfin (except Gila River drainage, Arizona, New Mexico) (Plagopterus argentissimus) E Aupaka (Isodendrion laurifolium)
T Aupaka (Isodendrion longifolium)
Clams E 'Awikiwiki (Canavalia molokaiensis)
E Awiwi (Centaurium sebaeoides)
E Elktoe, Appalachian (Alasmidonta raveneliana) E Awiwi (Hedyotis cookiana)
E Heelsplitter, Carolina (Lasmigona decorata) E Bladderpod, San Bernardino Mountains (Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardina)
E Bladderpod, Zapata (Lesquerella thamnophila)
Snails T Blazingstar, Ash Meadows (Mentzelia leucophylla)
E Snail, Morro shoulderband (=banded dune) (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) E Bluegrass, Hawaiian (Poa sandvicensis)
T Snail, Newcomb's (Erinna newcombi) E Bluegrass, Mann's (Poa mannii)
E Buckwheat, cushenbury (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)
Insects T Centaury, spring-loving (Centaurium namophilum)
T Beetle, delta green ground (Elaphrus viridis) E Checkermallow, Keck's (Sidalcea keckii)
E Beetle, Helotes mold (Batrisodes venyivi) E Checkermallow, Wenatchee Mountains (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)
T Beetle, valley elderberry longhorn (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) T Daisy, Parish's (Erigeron parishii)
T Butterfly, bay checkerspot (Euphydryas editha bayensis) E Evening primrose, Antioch Dunes (Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii)
T Butterfly, Oregon silverspot (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) E Fiddleneck, large-flowered (Amsinckia grandiflora)
E Butterfly, Palos Verdes blue (Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis) E Geranium, Hawaiian red-flowered (Geranium arboreum)
E Butterfly, Quino checkerspot (Euphydryas editha quino (=E. e. wrighti)) E Goldfields, Contra Costa (Lasthenia conjugens)
E Grasshopper, Zayante band-winged (Trimerotropis infantilis) E Grass, Solano (Tuctoria mucronata)
E Ground beetle, [unnamed] (Rhadine exilis) T Groundsel, San Francisco Peaks (Senecio franciscanus)
E Ground beetle, [unnamed] (Rhadine infernalis) T Gumplant, Ash Meadows (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis)
E Moth, Blackburn's sphinx (Manduca blackburni) E Haha (Cyanea acuminata)
T Naucorid, Ash Meadows (Ambrysus amargosus) E Haha (Cyanea asarifolia)
E Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii)
Arachnids E Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis)
E Harvestman, Cokendolpher Cave (Texella cokendolpheri) E Haha (Cyanea dunbarii)
E Meshweaver, Braken Bat Cave (Cicurina venii) E Haha (Cyanea glabra)
E Meshweaver, Madla's Cave (Cicurina madla) E Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana)
E Meshweaver, Robber Baron Cave (Cicurina baronia) E Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae)
E Spider, Kauai cave wolf or pe'e pe'e maka 'ole (Adelocosa anops) E Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora carlsonii)
E Spider, spruce-fir moss (Microhexura montivaga) E Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora)
E Haha (Cyanea humboldtiana)
Crustaceans E Haha (Cyanea koolauensis)
E Amphipod, Kauai cave (Spelaeorchestia koloana) E Haha (Cyanea lobata)
E Fairy shrimp, Conservancy (Branchinecta conservatio) E Haha (Cyanea longiflora)
E Fairy shrimp, longhorn (Branchinecta longiantenna) E Haha (Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii)
E Fairy shrimp, Riverside (Streptocephalus woottoni) E Haha (Cyanea mannii)
E Fairy shrimp, San Diego (Branchinecta sandiegonensis) E Haha (Cyanea mceldowneyi)
T Fairy shrimp, vernal pool (Branchinecta lynchi) E Haha (Cyanea pinnatifida)
E Shrimp, Kentucky cave (Palaemonias ganteri) E Haha (Cyanea platyphylla)
E Tadpole shrimp, vernal pool (Lepidurus packardi) E Haha (Cyanea procera)
Flowering Plants T Haha (Cyanea recta)
E Haha (Cyanea remyi)
E A'e (Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum) E Haha (Cyanea shipmannii)
E A'e (Zanthoxylum hawaiiense) E Haha (Cyanea stictophylla)
T Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum) E Haha (Cyanea st-johnii)
E 'Aiakeakua, popolo (Solanum sandwicense) E Haha (Cyanea superba)
E 'Aiea (Nothocestrum breviflorum) E Haha (Cyanea truncata)
E 'Aiea (Nothocestrum peltatum) E Haha (Cyanea undulata)
E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra crenata)
E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce deppeana) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra dentata)
E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce herbstii)

TABLE 2.3
Endangered or threatened species, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
Flowering plants Flowering plants
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra giffardii) E Nehe (Lipochaeta fauriei)
T Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra limahuliensis) E Nehe (Lipochaeta kamolensis)
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra munroi) E Nehe (Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla)
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra polyantha) E Nehe (Lipochaeta micrantha)
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra subumbellata) E Nehe (Lipochaeta tenuifolia)
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra tintinnabula) E Nehe (Lipochaeta waimeaensis)
E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra viridiflora) E Nioi (Eugenia koolauensis)
E Hala pepe (Pleomele hawaiiensis) E Niterwort, Amargosa (Nitrophila mohavensis)
E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus) E Abutilon eremitopetalum (No common name)
E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis) E Abutilon sandwicense (No common name)
E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus woodii) E Achyranthes mutica (No common name)
T Heather, mountain golden (Hudsonia montana) E Alsinidendron obovatum (No common name)
E Heau (Exocarpos luteolus) E Alsinidendron trinerve (No common name)
E Hedyotis, Na Pali beach (Hedyotis st.-johnii) E Alsinidendron viscosum (No common name)
E Hibiscus, Clay's (Hibiscus clayi) E Amaranthus brownii (No common name)
E Holei (Ochrosia kilaueaensis) E Bonamia menziesii (No common name)
E Iliau, dwarf (Wilkesia hobdyi) E Chamaesyce halemanui (No common name)
E Ischaemum, Hilo (Ischaemum byrone) E Cyanea (Rollandia) crispa (No common name)
T Ivesia, Ash Meadows (Ivesia kingii var. eremica) E Delissea rhytidosperma (No common name)
E Kamakahala (Labordia cyrtandrae) E Delissea undulata (No common name)
E Kamakahala (Labordia lydgatei) E Gahnia lanaiensis (No common name)
E Kamakahala (Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis) E Gouania hillebrandii (No common name)
E Kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides) E Gouania meyenii (No common name)
E Kauila (Colubrina oppositifolia) E Gouania vitifolia (No common name)
E Kaulu (Pteralyxia kauaiensis) E Hedyotis degeneri (No common name)
E Kio'ele (Hedyotis coriacea) E Hedyotis parvula (No common name)
E Kiponapona (Phyllostegia racemosa) E Hesperomannia arborescens (No common name)
E Kohe malama malama o kanaloa (Kanaloa kahoolawensis) E Hesperomannia arbuscula (No common name)
E Koki'o (Kokia drynarioides) E Hesperomannia lydgatei (No common name)
E Koki'o (Kokia kauaiensis) E Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (No common name)
E Koki'o ke'oke'o (Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus) E Lobelia monostachya (No common name)
E Koki'o ke'oke'o (Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae) E Lobelia niihauensis (No common name)
E Kolea (Myrsine juddii) E Lobelia oahuensis (No common name)
T Kolea (Myrsine linearifolia) E Lysimachia filifolia (No common name)
E Ko'oko'olau (Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha) E Lysimachia lydgatei (No common name)
E Ko'oko'olau (Bidens wiebkei) E Lysimachia maxima (No common name)
E Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago hawaiensis) E Mariscus fauriei (No common name)
E Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago princeps) E Mariscus pennatiformis (No common name)
E Kuawawaenohu (Alsinidendron lychnoides) E Munroidendron racemosum (No common name)
E Kula wahine noho (Isodendrion pyrifolium) E Neraudia angulata (No common name)
E Kulu'i (Nototrichium humile) E Neraudia ovata (No common name)
E Larkspur, Baker's (Delphinium bakeri) E Neraudia sericea (No common name)
E Larkspur, yellow (Delphinium luteum) E Phyllostegia glabra var . lanaiensis (No common name)
E Lau 'ehu (Panicum niihauense) E Phyllostegia hirsuta (No common name)
E Laulihilihi (Schiedea stellarioides) E Phyllostegia kaalaensis (No common name)
E Liliwai (Acaena exigua) E Phyllostegia knudsenii (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia affinis) E Phyllostegia mannii (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia kaalae) E Phyllostegia mollis (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia munroi) E Phyllostegia parviflora (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia napaliensis) E Phyllostegia velutina (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia remota) E Phyllostegia waimeae (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia schattaueri) E Phyllostegia warshaueri (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia viscosa) E Phyllostegia wawrana (No common name)
E Love grass, Fosberg's (Eragrostis fosbergii) E Platanthera holochila (No common name)
E Mahoe (Alectryon macrococcus) E Poa siphonoglossa (No common name)
T Makou (Peucedanum sandwicense) E Remya kauaiensis (No common name)
E Ma'o hau hele, (native yellow hibiscus) (Hibiscus brackenridgei) E Remya montgomeryi (No common name)
E Ma'oli'oli (Schiedea apokremnos) E Sanicula mariversa (No common name)
E Ma'oli'oli (Schiedea kealiae) E Sanicula purpurea (No common name)
E Mapele (Cyrtandra cyaneoides) E Schiedea haleakalensis (No common name)
E Meadowfoam, Butte County (Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica) E Schiedea helleri (No common name)
E Mehamehame (Flueggea neowawraea) E Schiedea hookeri (No common name)
E Milk vetch, Ash meadows (Astragalus phoenix) E Schiedea kaalae (No common name)
T Milk vetch, Cushenbury (Astragalus albens) E Schiedea kauaiensis (No common name)
E Milk vetch, heliotrope (Astragalus montii) E Schiedea lydgatei (No common name)
T Milkweed, Welsh's (Asclepias welshii) E Schiedea membranacea (No common name)
E Na'ena'e (Dubautia herbstobatae) E Schiedea nuttallii (No common name)
E Na'ena'e (Dubautia latifolia) E Schiedea sarmentosa (No common name)
E Na'ena'e (Dubautia pauciflorula) E Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda (No common name)
E Na'ena'e (Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis) E Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina (No common name)
E Nani wai'ale'ale (Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis) E Schiedea verticillata (No common name)
E Nanu (Gardenia mannii) E Silene alexandri (No common name)

TABLE 2.3
Endangered or threatened species, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
Flowering plants Flowering plants
T Silene hawaiiensis (No common name) E Pilo (Hedyotis mannii)
E Silene lanceolata (No common name) E Po'e (Portulaca sclerocarpa)
E Silene perlmanii (No common name) E Polygonum, Scotts Valley (Polygonum hickmanii)
E Spermolepis hawaiiensis (No common name) E Popolo ku mai (Solanum incompletum)
E Stenogyne bifida (No common name) E Pua 'ala (Brighamia rockii)
E Stenogyne campanulata (No common name) E Pu'uka'a (Cyperus trachysanthos)
E Stenogyne kanehoana (No common name) E Remya, Maui (Remya mauiensis)
E Tetramolopium arenarium (No common name) T Seagrass, Johnson's (Halophila johnsonii)
E Tetramolopium filiforme (No common name) T Sedge, Navajo (Carex specuicola)
E Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (No common name) E Silversword, Mauna Loa (=Ka'u) (Argyroxiphium kauense)
E Tetramolopium remyi (No common name) T Spineflower, Monterey (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens)
T Tetramolopium rockii (No common name) E Spineflower, Robust (including Scotts Valley) (Chorizanthe robusta [including vars. robusta and hartwegii])
E Trematolobelia singularis (No common name)
E Vigna o-wahuensis (No common name) T Spurge, Hoover's (Chamaesyce hooveri)
E Viola helenae (No common name) T Sunray, Ash Meadows (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata)
E Viola lanaiensis (No common name) E Tarplant, Gaviota (Hemizonia increscens ssp. villosa)
E Viola oahuensis (No common name) T Tarplant, Otay (Deinandra (=Hemizonia) conjugens)
E Xylosma crenatum (No common name) T Tarplant, Santa Cruz (Holocarpha macradenia)
E Nohoanu (Geranium multiflorum) E Thistle, La Graciosa (Cirsium loncholepis)
E Oha (Delissea rivularis) E Tuctoria, Greene's (Tuctoria greenei)
E Oha (Delissea subcordata) E Wahane (Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia drepanomorpha) E Wallflower, Contra Costa (Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia lindseyana) E Water-umbel, Huachuca (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes) E Wild-buckwheat, clay-loving (Eriogonum pelinophilum)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis) T Wild-buckwheat, gypsum (Eriogonum gypsophilum)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia peleana) E Wild-rice, Texas (Zizania texana)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia pyrularia) E Wire-lettuce, Malheur (Stephanomeria malheurensis)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia samuelii) E Yerba santa, Lompoc (Eriodictyon capitatum)
E Ohai (Sesbania tomentosa) Ferns and Allies
E 'Ohe'ohe (Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa)
E Olulu (Brighamia insignis) E Diellia, asplenium-leaved (Diellia erecta)
E Opuhe (Urera kaalae) E Fern, pendant kihi (Adenophorus periens)
E Orcutt grass, hairy (Orcuttia pilosa) E Ihi'ihi (Marsilea villosa)
E Orcutt grass, Sacramento (Orcuttia viscida) E Asplenium fragile var. insulare (No common name)
T Orcutt grass, San Joaquin (Orcuttia inaequalis) E Diellia falcata (No common name)
T Orcutt grass, slender (Orcuttia tenuis) E Diellia pallida (No common name)
T Owl's-clover, fleshy (Castilleja campestris ssp. succulenta) E Diellia unisora (No common name)
E Oxytheca, cushenbury (Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana) E Diplazium molokaiense (No common name)
E Pamakani (Tetramolopium capillare) E Pteris lidgatei (No common name)
E Pamakani (Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana) E Pauoa (Ctenitis squamigera)
E Panicgrass, Carter's (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) E Wawae'iole (Huperzia mannii)
E Penny-cress, Kneeland Prairie (Thlaspi californicum) E Wawae'iole (Lycopodium (Phlegmariurus) nutans)
E Pennyroyal, Todsen's (Hedeoma todsenii)
Total number of species is 450.
E=endangered
T=threatened
SOURCE: Adapted from "Listed Species with Critical Habitat as of 02/10/2004," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/TESSWebpageCrithab?nmfs=1&listings=1 [accessed February 10, 2004]

concerned about the threatened desert tortoise. In 2001 an update on this HCP was published by the Fish and Wildlife Service. The Fish and Wildlife Service reported that a total of 1,500 acres of habitat were developed in Washington County after being cleared of tortoises—161 tortoises were legally "taken." The biological benefits of the HCP included the acquisition of a continuous area of habitat for desert tortoises administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This reserve was created through the exchange and purchase of land by the Bureau of Land Management. In addition, tortoises will be protected from other threats on the reserve. For example, grazing permits for reserve land have been retired, so cattle will no longer trample habitat and compete with tortoises for food. In addition, new restrictions were placed on the operation of off-road vehicles in the reserve, which damage habitats and sometimes hit tortoises. The development of a nature education center is in the works. There are still a number of contentious issues. For example, some members of the public have demanded that more recreational opportunities be made available on the reserve. Also, the Bureau of Land Management needs to purchase more land to complete the reserve, difficult on its limited budget.

Opposition to the Endangered Species Act

Opponents of the Endangered Species Act believe the law violates private property rights and stifles economic growth by curbing development. They also charge that environmental protection often results in the loss of jobs and business profits.

One vocal critic of the Endangered Species Act is Thomas Lambert. In The Endangered Species Act: A

TABLE 2.4
Experimental populations, 2004

Inverted common name Scientific name Group code Where listed
Bear, grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis Mammals U.S.A. experimental non-essential (portions of ID and MT)
Ferret, black-footed Mustela nigripes Mammals U.S.A. (specific portions of AZ, CO, MT, SD, UT, and WY)
Otter, southern sea Enhydra lutris nereis Mammals All areas subject to U.S. jurisdiction south of Point Conception, CA
Squirrel, Delmarva Peninsula fox Sciurus niger cinereus Mammals U.S.A. (DE—Sussex Co.)
Wolf, gray Canis lupus Mammals U.S.A. (portions of AZ, NM, and TX)
Wolf, gray Canis lupus Mammals U.S.A. (WY and portions of ID and MT)
Wolf, red Canis rufus Mammals U.S.A. (portions of NC and TN)
Condor, California Gymnogyps californianus Birds U.S.A. (specific portions of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)
Crane, whooping Grus americana Birds U.S.A. (AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MN, MS, MO, NC, OH, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV)
Crane, whooping Grus americana Birds U.S.A. (CO, ID, FL, NM, UT, and the western half of Wyoming)
Rail, Guam Rallus owstoni Birds Rota
Chub, spotfin Cyprinella monacha Fishes Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir and the Tellico Ranger Station, in Monroe County, Tennessee
Darter, duskytail Etheostoma percnurum Fishes Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir and the Tellico Ranger Station, in Monroe County, Tennessee
Madtom, smoky Noturus baileyi Fishes Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir and the Tellico Ranger Station, in Monroe County, Tennessee
Madtom, yellowfin Noturus flavipinnis Fishes Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir and the Tellico Ranger Station, in Monroe County, Tennessee
Madtom, yellowfin Noturus flavipinnis Fishes North Fork Holston River, VA, TN; South Fork Holston River, upstream to Fort Patrick Henry Dam, TN; Holston River downstream to John Sevier Detention Lake Dam, TN; and all tributaries thereto
Pikeminnow (-squawfish), Colorado Ptychocheilus lucius Fishes Salt and Verde River drainages, AZ
Woundfin Plagopterus argentissimus Fishes Gila River drainage, AZ, NM
Bean, Cumberland (pearlymussel) Villosa trabalis Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Blossom, tubercled (pearlymussel) Epioblasma torulosa torulosa Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Blossom, turgid (pearlymussel) Epioblasma turgidula Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Blossom, yellow (pearlymussel) Epioblasma florentina florentina Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Catspaw (-purple cat's paw pearlymussel) Epioblasma obliquata obliquata Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Clubshell Pleurobema clava Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Combshell, Cumberlandian Epioblasma brevidens Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Lampmussel, Alabama Lampsilis virescens Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Mapleleaf, winged (mussel) Quadrula fragosa intermedia Clams U.S.A. (AL; The free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Monkeyface, Cumberland (pearlymussel) Quadrula intermedia Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam ownstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Pearlymussel, birdwing Conradilla caelata Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Pearlymussel, cracking Hemistena lata Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Pearlymussel, dromedary Dromus dromas Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).

TABLE 2.4
Experimental populations, 2004

Inverted common name Scientific name Group code Where listed
Pigtoe, fine-rayed Fusconaia cuneolus Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
Pigtoe, shiny Fusconaia cor Clams U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
River snail, Anthony's Athearnia anthonyi Snails U.S.A. (AL; the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River from the base of Wilson Dam downstream to the backwaters of Pickwick Reservoir [about 12 RM (19 km)] and the lower 5 RM [8 km] of all tributaries to this reach in Colbert and Lauderdale Counties).
SOURCE: Adapted from "Experimental Populations," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/TESSWebpageExpop [accessed February 11, 2004]

Train Wreck Ahead (St. Louis, MO: Center for the Study of American Business, 1995), Lambert argues that private property will become increasingly restricted under the act. This is because more species are continually being added to the threatened and endangered list, while few are removed from it. Lambert believes the best way to ensure that landowners are treated fairly is to require the federal government to compensate those whose property is devalued through Endangered Species Act land-use restrictions. That way, he says, regulators will be forced to weigh the costs and benefits of recovering a species much more thoroughly and sensibly than they do now.

Is the Endangered Species Act Enough?

Other critics argue, on the other hand, that the Endangered Species Act is not enough. These critics charge that species are often listed for protection so late in the slide to extinction that their populations have already become perilously small. In addition, the listing process can be extremely slow. A number of species have become extinct while federal authorities deliberated about listing action. Even some supporters of the Endangered Species Act believe that implementation of the act has been poor. In part, budget cuts are to blame. For example, in November 2000, the Fish and Wildlife Service announced that it would be unable to list any new species in 2001 because its budget would be entirely used up complying with court orders requiring designation of critical habitat for listed species. This continues to be a problem.

Other critics charge that the Endangered Species Act has failed in its central mission to preserve biodiversity. They argue that more must be done both to enforce the law and to supplement it. The Wilderness Society, an environmental advocacy organization, believes that the Endangered Species Act, even strengthened and fully funded, will not be sufficient to maintain biological diversity. It argues that conservation efforts must be ecosystem-based, and that the Endangered Species Act must be complemented with a biodiversity program which deals with units larger than single species.

Working Toward Species Conservation - Federal Lands And Wildlife Protection [next] [back] Working Toward Species Conservation - History Of Species Protection

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