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Working Toward Species Conservation - International Efforts

national total wildlife wilderness

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established to address diverse environmental issues on an international level. Many of its conventions have been extremely valuable in protecting global biodiversity and natural resources. UNEP has also helped to regulate pollution and the use of toxic chemicals.

FIGURE 2.6
National Wildlife Refuge System, 2004

TABLE 2.14
Threatened and endangered animal species found on the National Wildlife Refuge System, 2004
The following list includes all of the federally listed threatened and endangered animal species that are known to occur on units of the National Wildlife Refuge System.

Amphibians • Mussel, ring pink (=golf stick pearly) • Bat, Ozark big-eared
• Frog, California red-legged • Mussel, winged mapleleaf • Bear, grizzly
• Salamander, Cheat Mountain • Pearlymussel, Higgin's eye • Bear, Louisiana black
• Salamander, Santa Cruz long-toed • Pearlymussel, orange-footed pimpleback • Deer, Columbian white-tailed
• Toad, Arroyo • Pearlymussel, pink mucket • Deer, Key
• Toad, Wyoming • Pigtoe, rough • Ferret, black-footed
Birds • Pocketbook, fat • Fox, San Joaquin kit
• Akepa, Hawaii • Riffleshell, northern • Jaguar
• Akiapolaau Crustaceans • Jaguarundi
• Albatross, short-tailed • Cambarus aculabrum (crayfish with no common name) • Manatee, West Indian (Florida)
• Blackbird, Yellow-shouldered • Fairy shrimp, riverside • Mouse, Alabama beach
• Bobwhite, masked (quail) • Fairy shrimp, San Diego • Mouse, Key Largo cotton
• Broadbill, Guam • Tadpole shrimp, vernal pool • Mouse, salt marsh harvest
• Caracara, Audubon's crested Fishes • Mouse, southeastern beach
• Condor, California • Catfish, Yaqui • Ocelot
• Coot, Hawaiian • Cavefish, Alabama • Panther, Florida
• Crane, Mississippi sandhill • Cavefish, Ozark • Pronghorn, Sonoran
• Crane, whooping • Chub, bonytail • Puma, eastern
• Creeper, Hawaii • Chub, humpback • Rabbit, lower Keys
• Crow, Mariana • Chub, Oregon • Rabbit, riparian brush
• Curlew, Eskimo • Chub, Yaqui • Rat, Morro Bay kangaroo
• Duck, Hawaiian • Dace, Ash Meadows speckled • Rat, rice (=silver rice)
• Duck, Laysan • Dace, Moapa • Rat, Tipton kangaroo
• Eider, spectacled • Darter, watercress • Sea-lion, Steller (=northern)
• Eider, Stellar's • Gambusia, Pecos • Seal, Hawaiian monk
• Elepaio, Ohau • Goby, tidewater • Squirrel, Delmarva Peninsula fox
• Falcon, Northern Aplomado • Madtom, Neosho • Squirrel, Virginia northern flying
• Finch, Laysan • Madtom, pygmy • Whale, blue
• Finch, Nihoa • Minnow, Rio Grande silvery • Whale, bowhead
• Flycatcher, Southwestern Willow • Poolfish (=killifish), Pahrump • Whale, finback
• Gnatcatcher, Coastal California • Pupfish, Ash Meadows Amargosa • Whale, gray
• Goose, Hawaiian (=nene) • Pupfish, desert • Whale, humpback
• Hawk, Hawaiian • Pupfish, Devils Hole • Whale, right
• Jay, Florida scrub • Pupfish, Warm Springs • Whale, Sei
• Kingfisher, Guam Micronesian • Salmon, Chinook • Whale, sperm
• Kite, Everglade snail • Shiner, beautiful • Wolf, gray
• Millerbird, Nihoa • Shiner, Pecos bluntnose • Wolf, Mexican
• Moorhen (=gallilnule), Hawaiian common • Shiner, Topeka • Wolf, red
• Moorhen, Mariana common • Squawfish, Colorado • Woodrat, Key Largo
• Murrelet, marbled • Sturgeon, gulf Reptiles
• 'O'u (honeycreeper) • Sturgeon, pallid • Anole, Culebra Island giant
• Owl, northern spotted • Sturgeon, shortnose • Crocodile, American
• Pelican, brown • Sturgeon, white, Kootenai River population • Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard
• Plover, pipin • Sucker, Lost River • Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed
• Plover, western snowy (Pacific coastal) • Sucker, Razorback • Lizard, St. Croix ground
• Prairie chicken, Attwater's greater • Sucker, short-nose • Skink, blue-tailed mole
• Pygmy owl, cactus ferruginous • Topminnow, Gila (including Yaqui) • Skink, sand
• Rail, California clapper Insects • Snake, Atlantic salt marsh
• Rail, light-footed clapper • Beetle, American burying • Snake, Eastern indigo
• Rail, Yuma clapper • Beetle, valley elderberry longhorn • Snake, giant garter
• Stilt, Hawaiian • Butterfly, Karner blue • Snake, northern copperbelly water
• Stork, wood • Butterfly, Lange's metalmark • Tortoise, desert
• Swiftlet, Vanikoro • Butterfly, Quino checkerspot • Tortoise, gopher
• Tern, California least • Butterfly, Schaus swallowtail • Turtle, green sea
• Tern, least (interior) • Butterfly, Smith's blue • Turtle, hawksbill sea
• Tern, roseate • Dragonfly, Hine's emerald • Turtle, Kemp's (=Atlantic) ridley sea
• Vireo, black-capped • Naucorid, Ash Meadows • Turtle, leatherback sea
• Vireo, least Bell's Mammals • Turtle, loggerhead sea
• Warbler, Bachman's • Bat, gray • Turtle, Plymouth redbelly
• Warbler, golden-cheeked • Bat, Hawaiian hoary • Turtle, ringed map (=sawback)
• Warbler, Kirtland's • Bat, Indiana Snails
• White-eye, bridled • Bat, lesser (=Sanborn's) long-nosed • Snail, Iowa pleistocence
• Woodpecker, red-cockaded • Bat, little Mariana fruit • Snail, Oahu tree
Clams • Bat, Mariana Fruit • Snail, Stock Island tree
• Clubshell
• Fanshell
SOURCE: "Threatened and Endangered Animal Species Found on the National Wildlife Refuge System," in America's National Wildlife Refuge System, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://refuges.fws.gov/habitats/EndSpAnimals.html [accessed February 10, 2004]

TABLE 2.15
Threatened and endangered plant species found on the National Wildlife Refuge System, 2004
The following list includes all of the federally listed threatened and endangered plant species that are known to occur on units of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The species are listed in alphabetical order by scientific name.

Aconitum noveboracense—northern wild monkshood Hesperomanni arborescens—no common name
Aeschynomene virginica—sensitive joint-vetch Howellia aquatilus—water howellia
Agalinis acuta—sandplain gerardia Hymenoxys aculis var. glabra—lakeside daisy
Amaranthus brownii—Brown's pigweed Iris lacustris—Dwarf Lake iris
Amaranthus pumilus—seabeach amaranth Isodendrion laurifolium—aupaka
Apios priceana—Price's potato bean Ivesia kingii var. eremica—Ash Meadows ivesia
Arenaria paludicola—marsh sandwort Lespedeza leptosyachya—prairie bush clover
Aristida chasae—no common name Liatris ohlingerae—scrub blazingstar
Asclepias meadii—Mead's milkweed Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva—Huachuca water umbel
Asimina tetramera—four-petal pawpaw Lobelia gaudichaudii spp. koolauensis—no common name
Asplenium scolopendrium var. americana—American hart's-tongue fern Lobelia oahuensis—no common name
Astragalus phoenix—Ash Meadows milk-vetch Lomatium bradshawii—Bradshaw's desert parsley
Boltonia decurrens—Decurrent false aster Manihot walkerae—Walker's manioc
Bonamia grandiflora—Florida bonamia Mariscus pennatiformis ssp. bryanii—no common name
Calyptranthes thomasiana—Thomas' lidflower Mentzelia leucophylla—Ash Meadows blazing star
Centaurium namophilum—spring-loving centaury Nitrophila mohavensis—Amargosa niterwort
Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans—fragrant prickly apple Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii—Antioch Dunes evening primose
Cereus robinii—Key tree-cactus Orcuttia californica—California orcutt grass
Chamaesyce garberi (=Euphorbia garberi) Garber's spurge Oxypolis canbyi—Canby's dropwort
Chamaesyce rockii—'akoko Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea—Fassett's locoweed
Chionanthus pygmaeus—pygmy fringe-tree Paronychia chartacea (=Nyachia pulvinata)—Papery whitlow wort
Chorizante pungens var pungens—Monterey spineflower Penstemon haydenii—blowout penstemon
Cirsium pitcheri—Pitcher's thistle Peperomia wheeleri—Wheeler's peperomia
Clermontia pyrularia—'oha wai Phlegmariurus nutans—wawae'iole
Clitoria fragrans—Pigeon wings Phyllostegia hirsuta—no common name
Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus—salt marsh bird's-beak Phyllostegia racemosa—kiponapona
Cordylanthus palmatus—palmate-bracted bird's-beak Platanthera leucophaea—eastern prairie fringed orchid
Coryphantha sneedii var. robustispina—Pima pineapple cactus Platanthera praeclara—western prairie fringed orchid
Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii—Sneed pincushion cactus Pogogyne abramsii—San Diego mesa mint
Cyanea acuminata—haha Pogogyne nudiuscula—Otay mesa mint
Cyanea humboldtiana—haha Polygonella basiramia (=P. ciliata var. b.)—Wireweed
Cyanea koolauensis—haha Polystichum aleuticum—Aleutian shield-fern
Cyanea schipmanii—haha Pritchardia remota—loulu
Cyrtandra subumbellata—ha'iwale Prunus geniculata—scrub plum
Cyrtandra viridiflora—ha'iwale Pteris lydgatei—no common name
Dicerandra christmaii—Garett's mint Sanicula purpurea—no common name
Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri—Kuenzler hedgehog cactus Sarracenia oreophila—green pitcher plant
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata—Ash Meadows sunray Schiedea verticillata—whorled schiedea
Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium—scrub buckwheat Schwalbea americana—American chaffseed
Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii—San Diego button celery Sclerocactus glaucus—Unita Basin hookless cactus
Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum—Contra Costa wallflower Sedum integrifolium leedyi—Leedy's roseroot
Eugenia woodburyana—no common name Serianthes nelsonii—Hayun lagu
Frankenia johnstonii—Johnston's frankenia Sesbania tomentosa—'ohai
Gardenia manii—nanu, Na'u Sidalcea nelsoniana—Nelson's checkermallow
Goetzea elegans—beautiful goetzea Stahlia monosperma—cobana negra
pratensis—Ash Meadows gumplant Grindelia fraxino - Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa—no common name
Harrisia portorricensis—Higo chumbo Thymophylla tephroleuca—ashy dogweed
Helianthus pardoxius—Pecos sunflower Trifolium stoloniferum—running buffalo clover
Helonias bullata—Swamp pink Viola oahuensis—no common name
SOURCE: "Threatened and Endangered Plant Species Found on the National Wildlife Refuge System," in America's National Wildlife Refuge System, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://refuges.fws.gov/habitats/EndSpPlants.html [accessed February 10, 2004]

Convention on Biological Diversity

The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity was set up to conserve biodiversity and to promote the sustainable use of biodiversity. The Convention supports national efforts in the documentation and monitoring of biodiversity, the establishment of refuges and other protected areas, and the restoration of degraded ecosystems. It also supports goals related to the maintenance of traditional knowledge of sustainable resource use, the prevention of invasive species introductions, and the control of invasive species that are already present. Finally, it funds education programs promoting public awareness of the value of natural resources.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement administered under UNEP which regulates international trade in wildlife. CITES is perhaps the single most important international agreement relating to endangered species and has contributed critically to the protection of many threatened species. The international wildlife trade is estimated to involve hundreds of millions of specimens annually.

CITES was first drafted in 1963 at a meeting of the IUCN, and went into effect in 1975. As of 2004, CITES

TABLE 2.16
Wilderness areas in national wildlife refuges and national fish hatcheries, 2002
Wilderness Area: Service land designated by Congress to be managed as a unit of the National Wilderness Preservation System, in accordance with the terms of the Wilderness Act of 1964. All Service Wilderness Areas occur within National Wildlife Refuges, with the exception of the Mount Massive Wilderness Area which is located at the Leadville National Fish Hatchery (NFH).

Public law
State and unit Wilderness name Wilderness acres Refuge acres Number Date
Alaska
Alaska Maritime Aleutian Islands 1,300,000.00 3,465,246.79 96–487 12-02-80
Alaska Maritime Bering Sea 81,340.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Bogoslof 175.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Chamisso 455.00 0.00 93–632 01-03-75
Alaska Maritime Forrester Island 2,832.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Hazy Island 32.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Semidi 250,000.00 0.00 96–487 12-02-80
Alaska Maritime Simeonof 25,855.00 0.00 94–557 10-19-76
Alaska Maritime St. Lazaria 65.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Tuxedni 5,566.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Alaska Maritime Unimak 910,000.00 0.00 96–487 12-02-80
Arctic Mollie Beattie 8,000,000.00 19,285,922.40 96–487 12-02-80
Becharof Becharof 400,000.00 1,200,017.75 96–487 12-02-80
Innoko Innoko 1,240,000.00 3,850,321.21 96–487 12-02-80
Izembek Izembek 307,981.76 311,075.78 96–487 12-02-80
Kenai Kenai 1,354,247.0 1,908,178.23 96–487 12-02-80
Koyukuk Koyukuk 400,000.00 3,550,000.53 96–487 12-02-80
Selawik Selawik 240,000.00 2,150,002.01 96–487 12-02-80
Togiak Togiak 2,270,799.79 4,098,740.94 96–487 12-02-80
Yukon Delta Andreafsky 1,300,000.00 19,166,094.48 96–487 12-02-80
Yukon Delta Nunivak 600,000.00 0.00 96–487 12-02-80
State total 18,689,348.55 58,985,600.12
Arizona
Cabreza Prieta Cabreza Prieta 803,418.00 860,041.32 101–628 11-28-90
Havasu Havasu 14,606.00 30,279.82 101–628 11-28-90
Imperial Imperial 9,220.00 17,809.76 101–628 11-28-90
Kofa Kofa 516,200.00 666,480.00 101–628 11-28-90
State total 1,343,444.00 1,574,610.90
Arkansas
Big Lake Big Lake 2,143.80 11,036.10 94–557 10-19-76
State total 2,143.80 11,036.10
California
Farallon Farallon 141.00 211.00 93–550 12-26-74
Havasu Havasu 3,195.00 7,235.34 103–433 10-31-94
Imperial Imperial 5,836.00 7,958.19 103–433 10-31-94
State total 9,172.00 15,404.53
Colorado
Leadville NFH Mount Massive 2,560.00 3,065.88 96–560 12-22-80
State total 2,560.00 3,065.88
Florida
Cedar Keys Cedar Keys 379.00 891.15 92–364 08-07-72
Chassahowitzka Chassahowitzka 23,578.93 30,842.91 94–557 10-19-76
Great White Heron Florida Keys 1,900.00 192,787.68 93–632 01-03-75
Island Bay Island Bay 20.24 20.24 91–504 10-23-70
J.N. Ding Darling J.N. Ding Darling 2,619.13 6,388.28 94–557 10-19-76
Key West Florida Keys 2,019.00 208,308.17 93–632 01-03-75
Lake Woodruff Lake Woodruff 1,066.00 21,559.02 94–557 10-19-76
National Key Deer Florida Keys (1) 2,278.00 8,952.31 93–632 01-03-75
National Key Deer Florida Keys (2) 0.00 0.00 97–211 06-30-82
Passage Key Passage Key 36.37 63.87 91–504 10-23-70
Pelican Island Pelican Island 5.50 5,375.93 91–504 10-23-70
St. Marks St. Marks 17,350.00 67,623.07 93–632 01-03-75
State total 51,252.17 542,812.58
Georgia
Blackbeard Island Blackbeard Island 3,000.00 5,617.64 93–632 10-23-70
Okefenokee Okefenokee 353,981.00 391,401.99 93–429 10-01-74
Wolf Island Wolf Island 5,125.82 5,125.82 93–632 01-03-75
State total 362,106.82 402,145.45
Illinois
Crab Orchard Crab Orchard 4,050.00 43,888.52 94–557 10-19-76
State total 4,050.00 43,888.52

TABLE 2.16
Wilderness areas in national wildlife refuges and national fish hatcheries, 2002
Wilderness Area: Service land designated by Congress to be managed as a unit of the National Wilderness Preservation System, in accordance with the terms of the Wilderness Act of 1964. All Service Wilderness Areas occur within National Wildlife Refuges, with the exception of the Mount Massive Wilderness Area which is located at the Leadville National Fish Hatchery (NFH).

Public law
State and unit Wilderness name Wilderness acres Refuge acres Number Date
Louisiana
Breton Breton 5,000.00 9,047.00 93–632 01-01-75
Lacassine Lacassine 3,345.60 34,378.77 94–557 10-19-76
State total 8,345.60 43,425.77
Maine
Moosehorn Baring Unit 4,680.00 27,680,45 93–632 01-03-75
Moosehorn Birch Islands Unit 6.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
Moosehorn Edmunds Unit 2,706.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
State total 7,392.00 27,680.45
Massachusetts
Monomoy Monomoy 2,420.00 2,701.85 91–504 10-23-70
State total 2,420.00 2,701.85
Michigan
Huron Huron Islands 147.50 146.85 91–504 10-23-70
Michigan Islands Michigan Islands 12.00 597.39 91–504 10-23-70
Seney Seney 25,150.00 95,244.81 91–504 10-23-70
State total 25,309.50 95,989.05
Minnesota
Agassiz Agassiz 4,000.00 61,500.93 94–557 10-19-76
Tamarac Tamarac 2,180.00 35,191.38 94–557 10-19-76
State total 6,180.00 96,692.31
Missouri
Mingo Mingo 7,730.00 21,745.86 94–557 10-19-76
State total 7,730.00 21,745.86
Montana
Medicine Lake Medicine Lake 11,366.00 31,484.01 94–557 10-19-76
Red Rock Lakes Red Rock Lakes 32,350.00 51,744.41 94–557 10-19-76
UL Bend UL Bend (1) 20,819.00 56,049.56 94–557 10-19-76
UL Bend UL Bend (2) 0.00 0.00 98–140 10-31-83
State total 64,535.00 139,277.98
Nebraska
Fort Niobrara Fort Niobrara 4,635.00 19,132.53 94–557 10-19-76
State total 4,635.00 19,132.53
New Jersey
Edwin B. Forsythe Brigantine 6,681.00 45,191.13 93–632 01-03-75
Great Swamp Great Swamp 3,660.00 7,530.95 90–532 09-28-68
State total 10,341.00 52,722.08
New Mexico
Bitter lake Salt Creek 9,621.00 26,608.64 91–504 10-23-70
Bosque Del Apache Chupadea Unit 5,289.00 57,191.10 93–632 01-03-75
Bosque Del Apache Indian Well Unit 5,139.00 0.00 93–632 01-03-75
Bosque Del Apache Little San Pascual Unit 19,859.00 0.00 93–632 01-03-75
State total 39,908.00 81,799.74
North Carolina
Swanquarter Swanquarter 8,784.93 16,411.09 94–557 10-19-76
State total 8,784.93 16,411.09
North Dakota
Chase Lake Chase Lake 4,155.00 4,449.47 93–632 01-03-75
Lostwood Lostwood 5,577.00 26,903.99 96–632 01-03-75
State total 9,732.00 31,353.46
Ohio
West Sister Island West Sister Island 77.00 80.13 93–632 01-03-75
State total 77.00 80.13
Oklahoma
Wichita Mountains Charons Garden Unit 5,723.00 59,019.60 91–50 10-23-70
Wichita Mountains North Mountain Unit 2,847.00 0.00 91–504 10-23-70
State total 8,570.00 59,019.60

safeguards approximately 5,000 animal species and 28,000 plant species worldwide. These are listed in three separate CITES appendices depending on degree of endangerment. Appendix I includes species that are in immediate danger of extinction. CITES generally prohibits international trade of these species. Appendix II lists species that are likely to become in danger of extinction without strict protection from international trade. Permits may be obtained

TABLE 2.16
Wilderness areas in national wildlife refuges and national fish hatcheries, 2002
Wilderness Area: Service land designated by Congress to be managed as a unit of the National Wilderness Preservation System, in accordance with the terms of the Wilderness Act of 1964. All Service Wilderness Areas occur within National Wildlife Refuges, with the exception of the Mount Massive Wilderness Area which is located at the Leadville National Fish Hatchery (NFH).

Public law
State and unit Wilderness name Wilderness acres Refuge acres Number Date
Oregon
Oregon Islands Oregon Islands (1) 21.00 1,079.61 91–504 10-23-70
Oregon Islands Oregon Islands (2) 459.00 0.00 95–450 10-11-78
Oregon Islands Oregon Islands (3) 445.06 0.00 104–333 11-12-96
Three Arch Rocks Three Arch Rocks 15.00 15.00 91–504 10-23-70
State total 940.06 1,095.61
South Carolina
Cape Romain Cape Romain 29,000.00 65,224.94 93–632 01-03-75
State total 29,000.00 65,224.94
Washington
Copalis Washington Islands 60.80 60.80 91–504 10-23-70
Flattery Rocks Washington Islands 125.00 125.00 91–504 10-23-70
Quillayute Needles Washington Islands 300.20 300.20 91–504 10-23-70
San Juan Islands San Juan Islands 353.00 448.53 94–557 10-19-76
State total 839.00 934.53
Wisconsin
Gravel Island Wisconsin Islands 27.00 27.00 91–504 10-23-70
Green Bay Wisconsin Islands 2.00 2.00 91–504 10-23-70
State total 29.00 29.00
Grand total 20,698,845.43 62,290,453.29
As of 9/30/2002
SOURCE: "Wilderness Areas in National Wildlife Refuges and National Fish Hatcheries," in Division of Realty, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, September 30, 2002 [Online] http://realty.fws.gov/table10.html [accessed February 11, 2004]

for the trade of Appendix II species only if trade will not harm the survival prospects of the species in the wild. Appendix III lists species whose trade is regulated in one or more nations. Any member nation can list a species in Appendix III to request international cooperation in order to prevent unsustainable levels of international trade. Nations agree to abide by CITES rules voluntarily. In 2004 there were 164 nations party to the agreement.

Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals

The Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as the CMS or Bonn Convention) recognizes that certain migratory species cross national boundaries and require protection throughout their range. This convention aims to "conserve terrestrial, marine, and avian migratory species throughout their range." CMS was originally signed in Bonn, Germany in 1979 and went into force in November 1983. As of February 2004, 85 nations in Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania were involved in the agreement. The United States and several other nations are not official parties to the agreement but nonetheless abide by its rules.

CMS provides two levels of protection to migratory species. Appendix I species are endangered and strictly protected. There are currently 107 species in this category, including the Siberian crane, white-tailed eagle, hawksbill turtle, Mediterranean monk seal, and Dama gazelle. FIGURE 2.7
Generalized view of land status by 1961
Appendix II lists species that are less severely threatened but would nonetheless benefit from international cooperative agreements. Appendix II agreements have been drawn up for groups such as European bats, Mediterranean and Black Sea cetaceans, Baltic and North Sea cetaceans, Wadden Sea seals, African-Eurasian migratory water birds, and marine turtles. In February 2004 the CMS announced the latest agreement to come into force, the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and FIGURE 2.8
Terrestrial polar bear den locations (Beaufort sea population), 1981–2000
Petrels. Because these birds are highly migratory, their conservation requires broad international agreements in addition to efforts by individual nations.

Protected Areas

The IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) is the leading international body dedicated to the selection, establishment, and management of national parks and protected areas. It has helped set up many natural areas around the world for the protection of plant and animal species, and also maintains a database of protected areas. Protected areas often consist of a core zone where wildlife cannot legally be disturbed by human beings, surrounded by "buffer zones," transitional spaces that act as shields for the core zone. On the periphery are areas for managed human living. In 1998 there were 30,000 protected areas worldwide, covering 13.2 million square kilometers of land, freshwater habitat, and ocean. The terrestrial portion of the network, which is by far the largest, accounted for 11.7 million square kilometers—nearly 8 percent of the world's land area. A protected area is defined as "an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means."

Conservation biology theory advocates that protected areas should be as large as possible in order to increase biological diversity and to buffer refuges from outside pressures. The world's largest protected areas are Greenland National Park (Greenland), Ar-Rub'al-khali Wildlife Management Area (Saudi Arabia), Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Australia), Qiang Tang Nature Reserve (China), Cape Churchill Wildlife Management Area (Canada), and the Northern Wildlife Management Zone (Saudi Arabia).

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