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Endangered Plants and Ecosystems - Plants In Decline

name common var ssp

The 1997IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants from the World Conservation Union represents the first global assessment of plants, and was the result of over 20 years of study by botanists, conservation organizations, botanical gardens, and museums around the world. It revealed that 12.5 percent—one of every eight—of the world's plant species are in danger of extinction. In the United States, the figure is even higher, with 29 percent of the nation's 16,000 plant species threatened. Other findings included:

  • Of the estimated 270,000 known species of vascular plants (ferns, conifers, and flowering plants, but not mosses, lichens, and algae), 33,798 species are in danger of extinction.
  • Of the plant species at risk, 91 percent are found only in a single nation. These species are particularly vulnerable, having only limited options for recovery.
  • Many plant species known to have medicinal value are at risk of disappearing. For example, 75 percent of species in the yew family, a source of cancer-fighting compounds, are threatened. Twelve percent of the willow family, from which aspirin is derived, are threatened.
  • About 33 percent of the dipterocarps, a tree group that includes valuable timber species in Asia, are threatened.
  • The loss of each species causes a loss of genetic material that could be used to produce stronger, healthier crops for human and animal consumption.
  • Close relatives to many familiar plants are at risk of extinction, including 14 percent of the rose family and 32 percent of lilies and irises.
  • Numerous species whose value has not yet been studied are at risk.

According to the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants, the primary reasons for plant endangerment are habitat loss and introduction of invasive species. The ten areas with the greatest percentage of threatened flora are St. Helena (41.2 percent), Mauritius (39.2 percent), Seychelles (31.2 percent), the United States (29 percent),

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
E Sand verbena, large-fruited (Abronia macrocarpa) E Milk vetch, Ventura Marsh (Astragalus pycnostachyus var. lanosissimus)
E Abutilon eremitopetalum (No common name) E Milk vetch, Jesup's (Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi)
E Ko'oloa'ula (Abutilon menziesii) E Milk vetch, coastal dunes (Astragalus tener var. titi)
E Abutilon sandwicense (No common name) E Milk vetch, triple-ribbed (Astragalus tricarinatus)
E Liliwai (Acaena exigua) E Cactus, star (Astrophytum asterias)
T Thornmint, San Diego (Acanthomintha ilicifolia) E Crownscale, San Jacinto Valley (Atriplex coronata var. notatior)
E Thornmint, San Mateo (Acanthomintha obovata ssp. duttonii) E Auerodendron pauciflorum (No common name)
E Achyranthes mutica (No common name) E Ayenia, Texas (Ayenia limitaris)
E Chaff flower, round-leaved (Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata) T Baccharis, Encinitas (Baccharis vanessae)
T Monkshood, northern wild (Aconitum noveboracense) E Palo de ramon (Banara vanderbiltii)
T Joint vetch, sensitive (Aeschynomene virginica) E Rattleweed, hairy (Baptisia arachnifera)
E Gerardia, sandplain (Agalinis acuta) E Barberry, Nevin's (Berberis nevinii)
E Agave, Arizona (Agave arizonica) E ssp. Barberry, island (Berberis pinnata insularis)
E Mahoe (Alectryon macrococcus) T Birch, Virginia round-leaf (Betula uber)
E Onion, Munz's (Allium munzii) E Ko'oko'olau (Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha)
E Alopecurus, Sonoma (Alopecurus aequalis var. sonomensis) E Ko'oko'olau (Bidens wiebkei)
E Kuawawaenohu (Alsinidendron lychnoides) E Sunshine, Sonoma (Blennosperma bakeri)
E Alsinidendron obovatum (No common name) T Aster, decurrent false (Boltonia decurrens)
E Alsinidendron trinerve (No common name) T Bonamia, Florida (Bonamia grandiflora)
E Alsinidendron viscosum (No common name) E Bonamia menziesii (No common name)
E Amaranthus brownii (No common name) E Olulu (Brighamia insignis)
T Amaranth, seabeach (Amaranthus pumilus) E Pua 'ala (Brighamia rockii)
E Ambrosia, south Texas (Ambrosia cheiranthifolia) T Brodiaea, thread-leaved (Brodiaea filifolia)
E Ambrosia, San Diego (Ambrosia pumila) T Brodiaea, Chinese Camp (Brodiaea pallida)
E Lead plant, crenulate (Amorpha crenulata) E Boxwood, Vahl's (Buxus vahlii)
T Amphianthus, little (Amphianthus pusillus) E Uhiuhi (Caesalpinia kavaiense)
E Fiddleneck, large-flowered (Amsinckia grandiflora) E Capa rosa (Callicarpa ampla)
E Blue-star, Kearney's (Amsonia kearneyana) E Poppy mallow, Texas (Callirhoe scabriuscula)
E Cactus, Tobusch fishhook (Ancistrocactus tobuschii) T Mariposa lily, Tiburon (Calochortus tiburonensis)
T Potato bean, Price's (Apios priceana) E Calyptranthes thomasiana (No common name)
E Rock cress, Hoffmann's (Arabis hoffmannii) T Pussypaws, Mariposa (Calyptridium pulchellum)
E Rock cress, McDonald's (Arabis mcdonaldiana) T Manaca, palma de (Calyptronoma rivalis)
E Rock cress, Braun's (Arabis perstellata) E Morning glory, Stebbins' (Calystegia stebbinsii)
E Rock cress, shale barren (Arabis serotina) T Evening primrose, San Benito (Camissonia benitensis)
E Bear-poppy, dwarf (Arctomecon humilis) E Bellflower, Brooksville (Campanula robinsiae)
E Manzanita, Santa Rosa Island (Arctostaphylos confertiflora) E 'Awikiwiki (Canavalia molokaiensis)
E Manzanita, Del Mar (Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia) E Bittercress, small-anthered (Cardamine micranthera)
E Manzanita, Presidio (Arctostaphylos hookeri var. ravenii) E Sedge, white (Carex albida)
T Manzanita, Morro (Arctostaphylos morroensis) E Sedge, golden (Carex lutea)
T Manzanita, Ione (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia) T Sedge, Navajo (Carex specuicola)
T Manzanita, pallid (Arctostaphylos pallida) E Paintbrush, Tiburon (Castilleja affinis ssp. neglecta)
E Sandwort, Cumberland (Arenaria cumberlandensis) T Owl's clover, fleshy (Castilleja campestris ssp. succulenta)
E Sandwort, marsh (Arenaria paludicola) T Paintbrush, ash-grey (Castilleja cinerea)
T Sandwort, Bear Valley (Arenaria ursina) E Indian paintbrush, San Clemente Island (Castilleja grisea)
E Poppy, Sacramento prickly (Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta) T Paintbrush, golden (Castilleja levisecta)
E Silversword, Mauna Loa (=Ka'u) (Argyroxiphium kauense) E Paintbrush, soft-leaved (Castilleja mollis)
T 'Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum) E Catesbaea melanocarpa (No common name)
E 'Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense) E Jewelflower, California (Caulanthus californicus)
E Aristida chaseae (No common name) E Ceanothus, coyote (Ceanothus ferrisae)
E Pelos del diablo (Aristida portoricensis) T Ceanothus, Vail Lake (Ceanothus ophiochilus)
T Milkweed, Mead's (Asclepias meadii) E Ceanothus, Pine Hill (Ceanothus roderickii)
T Milkweed, Welsh's (Asclepias welshii) E Kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides)
E Pawpaw, four-petal (Asimina tetramera) T Centaury, spring-loving (Centaurium namophilum)
E Milk vetch, Cushenbury (Astragalus albens) E Awiwi (Centaurium sebaeoides)
E Milk vetch, Shivwitz (Astragalus ampullarioides) E Mountain mahogany, Catalina Island (Cercocarpus traskiae)
E Milk vetch, Applegate's (Astragalus applegatei) E Prickly apple, fragrant (Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans)
E Ground plum, Guthrie's (=Pyne's) (Astragalus bibullatus) E Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilis (No common name)
E Milk vetch, Braunton's (Astragalus brauntonii) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana)
E Milk vetch, Clara Hunt's (Astragalus clarianus) E Spurge, deltoid (Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. deltoidea)
E Milk vetch, Sentry (Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce deppeana)
T Milk vetch, Deseret (Astragalus desereticus) T Spurge, Garber's (Chamaesyce garberi)
E Milk vetch, Holmgren (Astragalus holmgreniorum) E Chamaesyce halemanui (No common name)
E Milk vetch, Mancos (Astragalus humillimus) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce herbstii)
E Milk vetch, Lane Mountain (Astragalus jaegerianus) T Spurge, Hoover's (Chamaesyce hooveri)
E Milk vetch, Coachella Valley (Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce kuwaleana)
T Milk vetch, Fish Slough (Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis) E 'Akoko (Chamaesyce rockii)
T Milk vetch, Peirson's (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii) E 'Akoko, Ewa Plains (Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana)
T Milk vetch, heliotrope (Astragalus montii) E Fringe tree, pygmy (Chionanthus pygmaeus)
E Milk vetch, Osterhout (Astragalus osterhoutii) T Amole, purple (Chlorogalum purpureum)
T Milk vetch, Ash Meadows (Astragalus phoenix) E Spineflower, Howell's (Chorizanthe howellii)

Jamaica (22.5 percent), Turkey (21.7 percent), Spain (19.5 percent), French Polynesia (19.5 percent), Pitcairn (18.4 percent), and Reunion (18.1 percent). Note that islands are disproportionately represented in the top ten. This is primarily because islands are particularly vulnerable to invasive species.

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
E Spineflower, Orcutt's (Chorizanthe orcuttiana) E Cyanea (=Rollandia) crispa (No common name)
E Spineflower, Ben Lomond (Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana) E Haha (Cyanea shipmannii)
T Spineflower, Monterey (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens) E Haha (Cyanea stictophylla)
E Spineflower, Robust (including Scotts Valley) (Chorizanthe robusta (incuding vars. robusta and hartwegii)) E Haha (Cyanea st-johnii)
E Haha (Cyanea superba)
E Spineflower, Sonoma (Chorizanthe valida) E Haha (Cyanea truncata)
E Aster, Florida golden (Chrysopsis floridana) E Haha (Cyanea undulata)
E Thistle, fountain (Cirsium fontinale var. fontinale) T Cycladenia, Jones (Cycladenia jonesii (=humilis))
E Thistle, Chorro Creek bog (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense) E Pu'uka'a (Cyperus trachysanthos)
E Thistle, Suisun (Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra crenata)
E Thistle, La Graciosa (Cirsium loncholepis) E Mapele (Cyrtandra cyaneoides)
T Thistle, Pitcher's (Cirsium pitcheri) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra dentata)
T Thistle, Sacramento Mountains (Cirsium vinaceum) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra giffardii)
E Clarkia, Presidio (Clarkia franciscana) T Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra limahuliensis)
E Clarkia, Vine Hill (Clarkia imbricata) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra munroi)
E Clarkia, Pismo (Clarkia speciosa ssp. immaculata) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra polyantha)
T Clarkia, Springville (Clarkia springvillensis) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra subumbellata)
E Leather flower, Morefield's (Clematis morefieldii) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra tintinnabula)
E Leather flower, Alabama (Clematis socialis) E Ha'iwale (Cyrtandra viridiflora)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia drepanomorpha) E Prairie-clover, leafy (Dalea foliosa)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia lindseyana) E Daphnopsis hellerana (No common name)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes) E Pawpaw, beautiful (Deeringothamnus pulchellus)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis) E Pawpaw, Rugel's (Deeringothamnus rugelii)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia peleana) T Tarplant, Otay (Deinandra (=Hemizonia) conjugens)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia pyrularia) E Delissea rhytidosperma (No common name)
E 'Oha wai (Clermontia samuelii) E Oha (Delissea rivularis)
T Pigeon wings (Clitoria fragrans) E Oha (Delissea subcordata)
E Kauila (Colubrina oppositifolia) E Delissea undulata (No common name)
E Rosemary, short-leaved (Conradina brevifolia) E Larkspur, Baker's (Delphinium bakeri)
E Rosemary, Etonia (Conradina etonia) E Larkspur, yellow (Delphinium luteum)
E Rosemary, Apalachicola (Conradina glabra) E Larkspur, San Clemente Island (Delphinium variegatum ssp. kinkiense)
T Rosemary, Cumberland (Conradina verticillata) E Mint, Garrett's (Dicerandra christmanii)
E Cordia bellonis (No common name) E Mint, longspurred (Dicerandra cornutissima)
E Bird's beak, salt marsh (Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus) E Mint, scrub (Dicerandra frutescens)
E Bird's beak, soft (Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis) E Mint, Lakela's (Dicerandra immaculata)
E Bird's beak, palmate-bracted (Cordylanthus palmatus) E Spineflower, slender-horned (Dodecahema leptoceras)
E Bird's beak, Pennell's (Cordylanthus tenuis ssp. capillaris) E Na'ena'e (Dubautia herbstobatae)
E Palo de nigua (Cornutia obovata) E Na'ena'e (Dubautia latifolia)
E Cactus, Nellie cory (Coryphantha minima) E Na'ena'e (Dubautia pauciflorula)
T Cory cactus, bunched (Coryphantha ramillosa) E Na'ena'e (Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis)
T Cactus, Cochise pincushion (Coryphantha robbinsorum) T Dudleya, Conejo (Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva)
E Cactus, Pima pineapple (Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina) T Dudleya, marcescent (Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens)
T Cactus, Lee pincushion (Coryphantha sneedii var. leei) T Dudleyea, Santa Monica Mountains (Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia)
E Cactus, Sneed pincushion (Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii) T Dudleya, Santa Cruz Island (Dudleya nesiotica)
E Cranichis ricartii (No common name) E Dudleya, Santa Clara Valley (Dudleya setchellii)
E Higuero de sierra (Crescentia portoricensis) T Liveforever, Laguna Beach (Dudleya stolonifera)
E Harebells, Avon Park (Crotalaria avonensis) E Liveforever, Santa Barbara Island (Dudleya traskiae)
E Cat's-eye, Terlingua Creek (Cryptantha crassipes) T Dudleya, Verity's (Dudleya verityi)
E Gourd, Okeechobee (Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp. okeechobeensis) E Coneflower, smooth (Echinacea laevigata)
E Haha (Cyanea acuminata) E Coneflower, Tennessee purple (Echinacea tennesseensis)
E Haha (Cyanea asarifolia) E Cactus, Nichol's Turk's head (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii)
E Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii) T Cactus, Chisos Mountain hedgehog (Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis)
E Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis)
E Haha (Cyanea dunbarii) E Cactus, Kuenzler hedgehog (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri)
E Haha (Cyanea glabra) E Cactus, black lace (Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii)
E Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana) E Cactus, Arizona hedgehog (Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus)
E Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae) E Pitaya, Davis' green (Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisii)
E Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora carlsonii) T Cactus, Lloyd's Mariposa (Echinomastus mariposensis)
E Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora) T Sunray, Ash Meadows (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata)
E Haha (Cyanea humboldtiana) E Love grass, Fosberg's (Eragrostis fosbergii)
E Haha (Cyanea koolauensis) E Mallow, Kern (Eremalche kernensis)
E Haha (Cyanea lobata) E Woolly star, Santa Ana River (Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum)
E Haha (Cyanea longiflora) E Daisy, Willamette (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens)
E Haha (Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii) T Daisy, Maguire (Erigeron maguirei)
E Haha (Cyanea mannii) T Daisy, Parish's (Erigeron parishii)
E Haha (Cyanea mceldowneyi) T Fleabane, Zuni (Erigeron rhizomatus)
E Haha (Cyanea pinnatifida) E Mountain balm, Indian Knob (Eriodictyon altissimum)
E Haha (Cyanea platyphylla) E Yerba santa, Lompoc (Eriodictyon capitatum)
E Haha (Cyanea procera) E Buckwheat, Ione (including Irish Hill) (Eriogonum apricum (including var. postratum))
T Haha (Cyanea recta)
E Haha (Cyanea remyi) T Wild buckwheat, gypsum (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

However, the 1997IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants contains regional biases—assessments of flora in North America, Australia, and Southern Africa were more comprehensive than those for other regions. It is likely that significantly greater numbers of threatened plant species will be found in Asia, the Caribbean, South America, and the rest of Africa when these areas are fully studied.

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
T Wild buckwheat, southern mountain (Eriogonum kennedyi var. austromontanum) E Kauai hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus distans)
E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus)
T Buckwheat, scrub (Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium) E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis)
E Buckwheat, cushenbury (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) E Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus woodii)
E Buckwheat, steamboat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsiae) E Koki'o ke'oke'o (Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus)
E Wild buckwheat, clay-loving (Eriogonum pelinophilum) E Ma'o hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus) (Hibiscus brackenridgei)
E Sunflower, San Mateo woolly (Eriophyllum latilobum) E Hibiscus, Clay's (Hibiscus clayi)
E Button celery, San Diego (Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii) E Koki'o ke'oke'o (Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae)
E Thistle, Loch Lomond coyote (Eryngium constancei) E Rush pea, slender (Hoffmannseggia tenella)
E Snakeroot (Eryngium cuneifolium) T Tarplant, Santa Cruz (Holocarpha macradenia)
E Wallflower, Contra Costa (Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum) T Howellia, water (Howellia aquatilis)
E Wallflower, Menzies' (Erysimum menziesii) T Heather, mountain golden (Hudsonia montana)
E Wallflower, Ben Lomond (Erysimum teretifolium) T Daisy, lakeside (Hymenoxys herbacea)
E Lily, Minnesota dwarf trout (Erythronium propullans) E Dawn flower, Texas prairie (Hymenoxys texana)
E Uvillo (Eugenia haematocarpa) E Hypericum, highlands scrub (Hypericum cumulicola)
E Nioi (Eugenia koolauensis) E Holly, Cook's (Ilex cookii)
E Eugenia woodburyana (No common name) E Ilex sintenisii (No common name)
E 'Akoko (Euphorbia haeleeleana) E Mallow, Peter's Mountain (Iliamna corei)
T Spurge, telephus (Euphorbia telephioides) E Ipomopsis, Holy Ghost (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus)
T Mustard, Penland alpine fen (Eutrema penlandii) T Iris, dwarf lake (Iris lacustris)
E Heau (Exocarpos luteolus) E Ischaemum, Hilo (Ischaemum byrone)
E Mehamehame (Flueggea neowawraea) E Aupaka (Isodendrion hosakae)
E Frankenia, Johnston's (Frankenia johnstonii) E Aupaka (Isodendrion laurifolium)
E Flannelbush, Pine Hill (Fremontodendron californicum ssp. decumbens) T Aupaka (Isodendrion longifolium)
E Flannelbush, Mexican (Fremontodendron mexicanum) E Kula wahine noho (Isodendrion pyrifolium)
E Fritillary, Gentner's (Fritillaria gentneri) T Pogonia, small whorled (Isotria medeoloides)
E Gahnia lanaiensis (No common name) T Ivesia, Ash Meadows (Ivesia kingii var. eremica)
E Milkpea, Small's (Galactia smallii) E Jacquemontia, beach (Jacquemontia reclinata)
E Bedstraw, island (Galium buxifolium) E Walnut, West Indian or nogal (Juglans jamaicensis)
E Bedstraw, El Dorado (Galium californicum ssp. sierrae) E Water-willow, Cooley's (Justicia cooleyi)
E Gardenia (=Na'u), Hawaiian (Gardenia brighamii) E Kohe malama malama o kanaloa (Kanaloa kahoolawensis)
E Nanu (Gardenia mannii) E Koki'o, Cooke's (Kokia cookei)
T Butterfly plant, Colorado (Gaura neomexicana var. coloradensis) E Koki'o (Kokia drynarioides)
T Geocarpon minimum (No common name) E Koki'o (Kokia kauaiensis)
E Geranium, Hawaiian red-flowered (Geranium arboreum) E Kamakahala (Labordia cyrtandrae)
E Nohoanu (Geranium multiflorum) E Kamakahala (Labordia lydgatei)
T Gesneria pauciflora (No common name) E Kamakahala (Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis)
E Avens, spreading (Geum radiatum) E Kamakahala (Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis)
E Gilia, Monterey (Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria) E Kamakahala (Labordia triflora)
E Gilia, Hoffmann's slender-flowered (Gilia tenuiflora ssp. hoffmannii) E Goldfields, Burke's (Lasthenia burkei)
E Goetzea, beautiful (Goetzea elegans) E Goldfields, Contra Costa (Lasthenia conjugens)
E Gouania hillebrandii (No common name) E Layia, beach (Layia carnosa)
E Gouania meyenii (No common name) E Lepanthes eltoroensis (No common name)
E Gouania vitifolia (No common name) E 'Anaunau (Lepidium arbuscula)
T Gumplant, Ash Meadows (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis) E Ridge-cress, Barneby (Lepidium barnebyanum)
E Stickseed, showy (Hackelia venusta) E Leptocereus grantianus (No common name)
T Seagrass, Johnson's (Halophila johnsonii) T Bush clover, prairie (Lespedeza leptostachya)
E Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya) T Bladderpod, Dudley Bluffs (Lesquerella congesta)
E Beauty, Harper's (Harperocallis flava) T Bladderpod, Missouri (Lesquerella filiformis)
T Higo, chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis) E Bladderpod, San Bernardino Mountains (Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardina)
E Pennyroyal, Todsen's (Hedeoma todsenii) T Bladderpod, lyrate (Lesquerella lyrata)
E Awiwi (Hedyotis cookiana) E Bladderpod, white (Lesquerella pallida)
E Kio'ele (Hedyotis coriacea) E Bladderpod, Spring Creek (Lesquerella perforata)
E Hedyotis degeneri (No common name) E Bladderpod, Zapata (Lesquerella thamnophila)
E Pilo (Hedyotis mannii) E Bladderpod, kodachrome (Lesquerella tumulosa)
E Hedyotis parvula (No common name) E Lessingia, San Francisco (Lessingia germanorum (=L.g. var. . germanorum))
E Bluet, Roan Mountain (Hedyotis purpurea var. montana) T Blazingstar, Heller's (Liatris helleri)
E Kopa (Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi) E Blazingstar, scrub (Liatris ohlingerae)
E Hedyotis, Na Pali beach (Hedyotis st.-johnii) E Water-umbel, Huachuca (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)
T Sneezeweed, Virginia (Helenium virginicum) E Lily, western (Lilium occidentale)
T Rush rose, island (Helianthemum greenei) E Lily, Pitkin Marsh (Lilium pardalinum ssp. pitkinense)
T Sunflower, Eggert's (Helianthus eggertii) E Meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly (Limnanthes floccosa grandiflora)
T Sunflower, Pecos (=puzzle, =paradox) (Helianthus paradoxus) E Meadowfoam, Butte County (Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica)
E Sunflower, Schweinitz's (Helianthus schweinitzii) E Meadowfoam, Sebastopol (Limnanthes vinculans)
T Pink, swamp (Helonias bullata) E Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)
E Tarplant, Gaviota (Hemizonia increscens ssp. villosa) E Nehe (Lipochaeta fauriei)
T Dwar flax, Marin (Hesperolinon congestum) E Nehe (Lipochaeta kamolensis)
E Hesperomannia arborescens (No common name) E Nehe (Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla)
E Hesperomannia arbuscula (No common name) E Nehe (Lipochaeta micrantha)
E Hesperomannia lydgatei (No common name) E Nehe (Lipochaeta tenuifolia)
T Heartleaf, dwarf-flowered (Hexastylis naniflora) E Lipochaeta venosa (No common name)

Information from the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants is being incorporated into new versions of IUCN publications. The 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species currently lists 6,774 species of threatened plants. This is almost 70 percent of the 9,706 that have been examined. However, only about 4 percent of plant

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
E Nehe (Lipochaeta waimeaensis) E Orcutt grass, hairy (Orcuttia pilosa)
E Woodland-star, San Clemente Island (Lithophragma maximum) T Orcutt grass, slender (Orcuttia tenuis)
E Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (No common name) E Orcutt grass, Sacramento (Orcuttia viscida)
E Lobelia monostachya (No common name) E Palo de rosa (Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon)
E Lobelia niihauensis (No common name) E Dropwort, Canby's (Oxypolis canbyi)
E Lobelia oahuensis (No common name) E Oxytheca, cushenbury (Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana)
E Desert parsley, Bradshaw's (Lomatium bradshawii) T Locoweed, Fassett's (Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea)
E Lomatium, Cook's (Lomatium cookii) E Panicgrass, Carter's (Panicum fauriei var. carteri)
E Broom, San Clemente Island (Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiae) E Lau 'ehu (Panicum niihauense)
E Lupine, scrub (Lupinus aridorum) T Whitlow wort, papery (Paronychia chartacea)
E Lupine, Nipomo Mesa (Lupinus nipomensis) E Stonecrop, Lake County (Parvisedum leiocarpum)
T Lupine, Kincaid's (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (var. kincaidii)) E Lousewort, Furbish (Pedicularis furbishiae)
E Cactus, Brady pincushion (Pediocactus bradyi)
E Lupine, clover (Lupinus tidestromii) E Cactus, San Rafael (Pediocactus despainii)
E Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (No common name) T Cactus, Siler pincushion (Pediocactus (=Echinocactus, =Utahia) sileri)
E Loosestrife, rough-leaved (Lysimachia asperulaefolia) E Cactus, Knowlton (Pediocactus knowltonii)
E Lysimachia filifolia (No common name) E Cactus, Peebles Navajo (Pediocactus peeblesianus peeblesianus)
E Lysimachia lydgatei (No common name) T Cactus, Winkler (Pediocactus winkleri)
E Lysimachia maxima (No common name) E Penstemon, blowout (Penstemon haydenii)
T Birds in a nest, white (Macbridea alba) E Beardtongue, Penland (Penstemon penlandii)
E Bush mallow, San Clemente Island (Malacothamnus clementinus) E Pentachaeta, white-rayed (Pentachaeta bellidiflora)
E Bush mallow, Santa Cruz Island (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus) E Pentachaeta, Lyon's (Pentachaeta lyonii)
E Malacothrix, Santa Cruz Island (Malacothrix indecora) E Peperomia, Wheeler's (Peperomia wheeleri)
E Malacothrix, island (Malacothrix squalida) T Makou (Peucedanum sandwicense)
E Manioc, Walker's (Manihot walkerae) E Phacelia, clay (Phacelia argillacea)
E Mariscus fauriei (No common name) E Phacelia, North Park (Phacelia formosula)
E Mariscus pennatiformis (No common name) E Phacelia, island (Phacelia insularis ssp. insularis)
T Button, Mohr's Barbara (Marshallia mohrii) E Phlox, Yreka (Phlox hirsuta)
E Alani (Melicope adscendens) E Phlox, Texas trailing (Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis)
E Alani (Melicope balloui) E Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope haupuensis) E Phyllostegia hirsuta (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope knudsenii) E Phyllostegia kaalaensis (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope lydgatei) E Phyllostegia knudsenii (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope mucronulata) E Phyllostegia mannii (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope munroi) E Phyllostegia mollis (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope ovalis) E Phyllostegia parviflora (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope pallida) E Kiponapona (Phyllostegia racemosa)
E Alani (Melicope quadrangularis) E Phyllostegia velutina (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope reflexa) E Phyllostegia waimeae (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope saint-johnii) E Phyllostegia warshaueri (No common name)
E Alani (Melicope zahlbruckneri) E Phyllostegia wawrana (No common name)
T Blazingstar, Ash Meadows (Mentzelia leucophylla) T Twinpod, Dudley Bluffs (Physaria obcordata)
E Monkey flower, Michigan (Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis) E Cactus, Key tree (Pilosocereusrobinii)
T Four o'clock, MacFarlane's (Mirabilis macfarlanei) T Butterwort, Godfrey's (Pinguicula ionantha)
E Mitracarpus maxwelliae (No common name) E Piperia, Yadon's (Piperia yadonii)
E Mitracarpus polycladus (No common name) E Aster, Ruth's golden (Pityopsis ruthii)
E Monardella, willowy (Monardella linoides ssp. viminea) E Popcornflower, rough (Plagiobothrys hirtus)
E Wooly threads, San Joaquin (Monolopia (=Lembertia) congdonii) E Allocarya, Calistoga (Plagiobothrys strictus)
E Munroidendron racemosum (No common name) E Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago hawaiensis)
E Myrcia paganii (No common name) E Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago princeps)
E Kolea (Myrsine juddii) E Platanthera holochila (No common name)
T Kolea (Myrsine linearifolia) T Orchid, eastern prairie fringed (Platanthera leucophaea)
T Navarretia, spreading (Navarretia fossalis) T Orchid, western prairie fringed (Platanthera praeclara)
E Navarretia, few-flowered (Navarretia leucocephala ssp. pauciflora (=N. pauciflora)) E Chupacallos (Pleodendron macranthum)
E Hala pepe (Pleomele hawaiiensis)
E Navarretia, many-flowered (Navarretia leucocephala ssp. plieantha) E Bluegrass, San Bernardino (Poa atropurpurea)
T Grass, Colusa (Neostapfia colusana) E Bluegrass, Mann's (Poa mannii)
E Neraudia angulata (No common name) E Bluegrass, Napa (Poa napensis)
E Neraudia ovata (No common name) E Bluegrass, Hawaiian (Poa sandvicensis)
E Neraudia sericea (No common name) E Poa siphonoglossa (No common name)
E Niterwort, Amargosa (Nitrophila mohavensis) E Mesa mint, San Diego (Pogogyne abramsii)
E Beargrass, Britton's (Nolina brittoniana) E Mesa mint, Otay (Pogogyne nudiuscula)
E 'Aiea (Nothocestrum breviflorum) E Polygala, Lewton's (Polygala lewtonii)
E 'Aiea (Nothocestrum peltatum) E Polygala, tiny (Polygala smallii)
E Kulu'i (Nototrichium humile) E Wireweed (Polygonella basiramia)
E Holei (Ochrosia kilaueaensis) E Sandlace (Polygonella myriophylla)
E Evening primrose, Eureka Valley (Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis) E Polygonum, Scotts Valley (Polygonum hickmanii)
E Evening primrose, Antioch Dunes (Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii) E Po'e (Portulaca sclerocarpa)
E Cactus, Bakersfield (Opuntia treleasei) E Pondweed, Little Aguja (=Creek) (Potamogeton clystocarpus)
E Orcutt grass, California (Orcuttia californica) E Potentilla, Hickman's (Potentilla hickmanii)
T Orcutt grass, San Joaquin (Orcuttia inaequalis) T Primrose, Maguire (Primula maguirei)

species have been studied in sufficient detail to assess their status, and the actual number of threatened species is likely to be very much higher.

The majority of IUCN-listed species are flowering plants, a diverse and well-studied group. In 2003 the IUCN reported that 6,279 of 8,526—or 74 percent of—flowering

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia affinis) E Checkermallow, pedate (Sidalcea pedata)
E Wahane (Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii) E Silene alexandri (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia kaalae) T Silene hawaiiensis (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia munroi) E Silene lanceolata (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia napaliensis) E Silene perlmanii (No common name)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia remota) E Campion, fringed (Silene polypetala)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia schattaueri) T Catchfly, Spalding's (Silene spaldingii)
E Lo'ulu (Pritchardia viscosa) E Irisette, white (Sisyrinchium dichotomum)
E Plum, scrub (Prunus geniculata) E Erubia (Solanum drymophilum)
E Sunburst, Hartweg's golden (Pseudobahia bahiifolia) E Popolo ku mai (Solanum incompletum)
T Sunburst, San Joaquin adobe (Pseudobahia peirsonii) E 'Aiakeakua, popolo (Solanum sandwicense)
E Kaulu (Pteralyxia kauaiensis) T Goldenrod, white-haired (Solidago albopilosa)
E Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum) T Goldenrod, Houghton's (Solidago houghtonii)
E Cliff rose, Arizona (Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra) E Goldenrod, Short's (Solidago shortii)
T Oak, Hinckley (Quercus hinckleyi) T Goldenrod, Blue Ridge (Solidago spithamaea)
E Buttercup, autumn (Ranunculus aestivalis (=acriformis)) E Spermolepis hawaiiensis (No common name)
E Remya kauaiensis (No common name) E Pinkroot, gentian (Spigelia gentianoides)
E Remya, Maui (Remya mauiensis) T Spiraea, Virginia (Spiraea virginiana)
E Remya montgomeryi (No common name) E Ladies' tresses, Canelo Hills (Spiranthes delitescens)
E Rhododendron, Chapman (Rhododendron chapmanii) T Ladies' tresses, Ute (Spiranthes diluvialis)
E Sumac, Michaux's (Rhus michauxii) E Ladies' tresses, Navasota (Spiranthes parksii)
T Beaked rush, Knieskern's (Rhynchospora knieskernii) T Cobana negra (Stahlia monosperma)
T Gooseberry, Miccosukee (Ribes echinellum) E Stenogyne angustifolia var. angustifolia (No common name)
E Watercress, Gambel's (Rorippa gambellii) E Stenogyne bifida (No common name)
E Arrowhead, bunched (Sagittaria fasciculata) E Stenogyne campanulata (No common name)
T Water plantain, Kral's (Sagittaria secundifolia) E Stenogyne kanehoana (No common name)
E Sanicula mariversa (No common name) E Wire lettuce, Malheur (Stephanomeria malheurensis)
E Sanicula purpurea (No common name) E Jewelflower, Metcalf Canyon (Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidus)
E Sandalwood, Lanai (='iliahi) (Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense) E Jewelflower, Tiburon (Streptanthus niger)
E Pitcher plant, green (Sarracenia oreophila) E Palo de jazmin (Styrax portoricensis)
E Pitcher plant, Alabama canebrake (Sarracenia rubra alabamensis) E Snowbells, Texas (Styrax texanus)
E Pitcher plant, mountain sweet (Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii) E Seablite, California (Suaeda californica)
E Naupaka, dwarf (Scaevola coriacea) E Grass, Eureka dune (Swallenia alexandrae)
E Schiedea, Diamond Head (Schiedea adamantis) E Taraxacum, California (Taraxacum californicum)
E Ma'oli'oli (Schiedea apokremnos) E Palo colorado (Ternstroemia luquillensis)
E Schiedea haleakalensis (No common name) E Ternstroemia subsessilis (No common name)
E Schiedea helleri (No common name) E Tetramolopium arenarium (No common name)
E Schiedea hookeri (No common name) E Pamakani (Tetramolopium capillare)
E Schiedea kaalae (No common name) E Tetramolopium filiforme (No common name)
E Schiedea kauaiensis (No common name) E Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (No common name)
E Ma'oli'oli (Schiedea kealiae) E Tetramolopium remyi (No common name)
E Schiedea lydgatei (No common name) T Tetramolopium rockii (No common name)
E Schiedea membranacea (No common name) E 'Ohe'ohe (Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa)
E Schiedea nuttallii (No common name) E Meadowrue, Cooley's (Thalictrum cooleyi)
E Schiedea sarmentosa (No common name) T Thelypody, Howell's spectacular (Thelypodium howellii spectabilis)
E Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda (No common name) E Mustard, slender-petaled (Thelypodium stenopetalum)
T Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina (No common name) E Penny cress, Kneeland Prairie (Thlaspi californicum)
E Laulihilihi (Schiedea stellarioides) E Dogweed, ashy (Thymophylla tephroleuca)
E Schiedea verticillata (No common name) E Fringepod, Santa Cruz Island (Thysanocarpus conchuliferus)
T Reed mustard, clay (Schoenocrambe argillacea) T Townsendia, Last Chance (Townsendia aprica)
E Reed mustard, Barneby (Schoenocrambe barnebyi) E Trematolobelia singularis (No common name)
E Reed mustard, shrubby (Schoenocrambe suffrutescens) E Bariaco (Trichilia triacantha)
T Schoepfia arenaria (No common name) T Bluecurls, Hidden Lake (Trichostema austromontanum ssp. compactum)
E Chaffseed, American (Schwalbea americana) E Clover, showy Indian (Trifolium amoenum)
E Bulrush, northeastern (Scirpus ancistrochaetus) E Clover, running buffalo (Trifolium stoloniferum)
T Cactus, Uinta Basin hookless (Sclerocactus glaucus) E Clover, Monterey (Trifolium trichocalyx)
T Cactus, Mesa Verde (Sclerocactus mesae-verdae) E Trillium, persistent (Trillium persistens)
E Cactus, Wright fishhook (Sclerocactus wrightiae) E Trillium, relict (Trillium reliquum)
T Skullcap, Florida (Scutellaria floridana) E Tuctoria, Greene's (Tuctoria greenei)
T Skullcap, large-flowered (Scutellaria montana) E Grass, Solano (Tuctoria mucronata)
T Roseroot, Leedy's (Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi) E Opuhe (Urera kaalae)
T Groundsel, San Francisco Peaks (Senecio franciscanus) T Vervain, Red Hills (Verbena californica)
T Butterweed, Layne's (Senecio layneae) T Crownbeard, big-leaved (Verbesina dissita)
E Iagu, Hayun (=[Guam], Tronkon guafi [Rota]) (Serianthes nelsonii) E Vernonia proctorii (No common name)
E Ohai (Sesbania tomentosa) E Vetch, Hawaiian (Vicia menziesii)
E Rockcress, Santa Cruz Island (Sibara filifolia) E Vigna o-wahuensis (No common name)
E 'Anunu (Sicyos alba) E Pamakani (Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana)
E Checkermallow, Keck's (Sidalcea keckii) E Viola helenae (No common name)
T Checkermallow, Nelson's (Sidalcea nelsoniana) E Nani wai'ale'ale (Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis)
E Checkermallow, Kenwood Marsh (Sidalcea oregana ssp. valida) E Viola lanaiensis (No common name)
E Checkermallow, Wenatchee Mountains (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) E Viola oahuensis (No common name)

plants were threatened. Among coniferous plants, 152 species, or 25 percent of the total, are threatened. Other IUCN-listed species include 36 true mosses (92 percent of species studied), 11 club mosses (85 percent of species studied), 42 liverworts (81 percent of species studied), 98 true ferns (60 percent of

TABLE 4.1
Endangered and threatened species of flowering plants, February 2004

Status Species name Status Species name
E Warea, wide-leaf (Warea amplexifolia) E A'e (Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum)
E Mustard, Carter's (Warea carteri) E A'e (Zanthoxylum hawaiiense)
E Iliau, dwarf (Wilkesia hobdyi) E Prickly-ash, St. Thomas (Zanthoxylum thomasianum)
E Xylosma crenatum (No common name) E Wild-rice, Texas (Zizania texana)
E Grass, Tennessee yellow-eyed (Xyris tennesseensis) E Ziziphus, Florida (Ziziphus celata)
T Yellowhead, desert (Yermo xanthocephalus)
E = endangered
T = threatened
SOURCE: "U.S. Listed Flowering Plant Species Report by Taxonomic Group as of 02/12/2004," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 2004 [Online] http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/TESSWebpageVipListed?code=F&listings=0#Q [accessed February 12, 2004]

species studied), and 151 cycads (52 percent of species studied).

Habitat loss accounts at least in part for the threatened status of 91 percent of IUCN-listed plants. The greatest number of threatened species are found in Central and South America, Central and West Africa, and Southeast Asia. Countries with the largest number of listed plants include Malaysia (681 species), Indonesia (384 species), Brazil (338 species), and Sri Lanka (280 species). Many of the threatened species from these countries represent tropical timber trees.

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